Stanford University
CESTA
Distributions of Occupations, 1870
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Distributions of Occupations, 1870

Authors: Whitney Berry, Zephyr Frank, and Erik Steiner

In order to help illustrate the complexity of the urban space of Rio de Janeiro, we mapped the spatial patterns of six different occupations circa 1870. The occupations chosen for this exercise illustrate the diversity in clustering or dispersion across different work categories, as well as within occupational groups such as professionals (doctors and lawyers), artisans (goldsmiths and bakers), and businessmen (merchants, dry goods stores).

Note that in all three broad occupational groups there was significant variation in the degree of clustering. This suggests that within-group differences in occupational characteristics (the importance of networks, optimal scale, service areas) may have been just as significant and between-group differences (status, income).

Technical Notes

Clustering measures were determined using Average Nearest Neighbor ratios in ArcGIS.

Density surfaces were generated using simple Kernel Density with a search radius of 150 meters.

Income values were derived from voter qualification rolls (1870-1884) and from business partnership data.

Precise numerical values are not included due to an unknown degree of uncertainty in the data.

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