Here is a list of resources related to transhumanism. If you have suggestions as to what else should be here, feel free to email me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The CFAR recommended reading list: Several books on rationality and decision making, which are both entertaining and quite useful. You will learn a lot about cognitive biases and how to avoid them.
Artificial General Intelligence, Intelligence Explosion, Singularity scenarios: While potentially quite far off into the future, this is still a problem which is both interesting from a theoretical standpoint, and something we will eventually need to tackle: