1100s  Variolation (inoculation with live virus) for smallpox first reported in China

1721    Variolation introduced into Great Britain by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

1796    Edward Jenner inoculated James Phipps with cowpox, and calls the procedure vaccination
            vacca = cow, in Latin)

1870    Louis Pasteur creates the first live attenuated bacterial vaccine (chicken cholera)

1884    Pasteur creates the first live attenuated viral vaccine (rabies)

1885    Pasteur first uses rabies vaccine in a human

1909    Calmet and Guerine create BCG, the first live attenuated bacterial vaccine for humans

1933    Goodpasture describes a technique for viral culture in hen's eggs

1949    Enders and colleagues isolate Lansing Type II poliovirus in human cell line

1954    Enders isolates measles virus

1955    Inactivated polio vaccine licensed

1961    Human diploid cell line developed

1963    Measles vaccine licensed
            Trivalent oral polio vaccine licensed

1966    World Health Assembly calls for global smallpox eradication

1977    Last indigenous case of smallpox (Somalia)

1979    Last wild-virus polio transmission in the U.S.

1986    Licensure of first recombinant vaccine (hepatitis B)

1989    Two-dose measle vaccine recommendation

1990    Licensure of first polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (Haemophilus influenzae type b)

1991    Last wild-virus polio case in the Western Hemisphere
            Universal infant hepatitis B vaccination recommended

1994    Polio elimination certified in the Americas

1995    Varicella vaccine licensed

1996    Acellular pertussis vaccine licensed for infants

1997    Sequential polio vaccination recommended

1998    Rotavirus vaccine licensed in U.S.

1999 and beyond    Global eradication of measles?  Polio?  HIV?

adapted from Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book), 4th Edition

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