The efficacy of an inactivated vaccine has been shown for many years. However, recently, researchers have begun examining the possibility of using a live attenuated vaccine. Researchers have compared the IgA response to A/H1N1. A/H3N2, and B strains in children (age 15-55 months) who received the vaccine versus those who didnt. They found that the immunized children were 4.5 times more likely to develop an immune response than children who received a placebo.
In addition to the recently approval of neuraminidase inhibitors as antiviral agents, PM-523 is another antiviral agent which acts by preventing the fusio between the vial envelope and the cell membrane. As a result, the virus is unable to infect the cells. The preliminary results on this drug are also very promising.
A new class of antiviral drugs have been approved by the FDA which act as neuraminidase inhibitors: Zanamivir and oseltamivir. Both these drugs can be used to target type A and type B, whereas the previously developed drugs that targeted unfolding were limited to effects in type A.
By targeting the same neuraminidase in the influenza virus using a reactive chromogenic substrate, researchers have developed the ZstatFlu (ZymeTx) which is a rapid means of determining influenza A or B infection. Current trials show that there is a very high specificity and rarely provided a false positive relative to traditional cell culture determination. This test can potentially allow patients to begin the appropriate antiviral treatment much sooner.
Cocaine has been previously shown to result in inhibit the replication of murine hepatitis virus. Researchers now know that mice, given daily injections of 10 mg/kg cocaine before and after influenza infection, demonstrated a 50% reduction in the amount of virus in their lungs relative to controls. This may lead the path to new types of antiviral treatments.