Image of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis 





Medium--rarely kills (<1% mortality; somewhat higher in children and elderly) but can make people very sick; can involve permanent neurologic sequelae


Attacks--via mosquito; infection involves a systemic influenza-like syndrome and can also affect meninges and/or brain
Outcomes--99% survive; very few (<1%) have permanent CNS damage
Speed--fast: incubation 1-5 days; onset is very sudden


Vaccines--attenuated virus and inactivated virus equine vaccines exist; they have been experimentally given to lab workers who work with VEEV but aren't licensed for humans; there appears to be a lowish seroconversion rate (~78%) in humans
Behavioral--get vaccinated if at high risk; wear mosquito repellant and long sleeves; avoid traveling to areas where VEEV is endemic; avoid hanging out around equine species in endemic areas, or vaccinate horses
Treatment--analgesics and supportive care (which can be fairly involved in the case of severe CNS symptoms); interferon has been successful in animal trials

Game Action

Move to a horse farm in Florida, get all of your horses vaccinated, and clear your area of standing water. Take an extra turn to celebrate your reduced risk.

"Fun" Fact

Was "weaponized" by the U.S. before we quit offensive biowarfare research; other countries may have VEEV in their bioweapons arsenals.