For Surrogacy:

  • A Right: Surrogacy is an exercise of reproductive choice and the "freedom to contract." Surrogacy promotes a women's right to privacy and procreation, and advocates economic autonomy. Making surrogacy illegal would be seen as a patriarchy that believes women are incapable of making their own decisions.
  • A hopeful future: Infertile women are now capable of having children, an obstacle that in some societies may make family members extremely unhappy. For surrogate mothers, they now have the money to buy a better home or even provide an education for their children.
  • An Act of Altruism: For some women, their sympathy torwards childless couples makes surrogacy an act of altruism, allowing her to part with the child easily.
  • Step Forward in Gender Equality: One of the major obstacles in gender equality is the fact that women must bear children. However, surrogacy gives woman who are busy running their own lives the opportunity to have their baby, while they are capable of continuuing to work. By having enough money to provide an education for their children, surrogate mothers are widening options for their daughters so that they may not need to choose surrogacy as a way to earn money.

Against Surrogacy

    • Exploitative: Outsourcing surrogacy to India is an exploitative practice that degrades women and takes advantage of their poverty and lack of opportunities for personal gain.
    • Dark future: The trajectory of surrogacy in India is towards large-scale baby farms in developing countries.  Futuristic tales of mass baby production centers don’t seem so far off.
    • Unregulated: The hands-off approach of the Indian government is creating a black market of fertility services and questionable doctors.  Soon, fertility clinics and egg donation centers will competitive price wars, compromising compensation and safety standards of surrogate mothers.
    • Lack of legal protection: Currently, no laws exist to protect the surrogate mother in case of birth complications, forced abortion, rejection by clients, and health risks. 
    • Shifting focus: A surrogate mother who is poor and illiterate can earn many times more than most middle class Indians through surrogacy.  This outcome discourages public expenditure on education and perpetuates surrogacy as a more lucrative occupation.
    • Government reputation: Does India want to be known as the #1 hotspot for womb outsourcing?  How would that impact its standing in the international community?



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Stanford University
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