Giorgio Magri (CNRS)
Arto Anttila (Stanford University)
T-orders across categorical and probabilistic constraint-based phonology
Consider a typology T of phonological grammars, construed as mappings
from underlying to surface representations. The implicational
universal (x, y) --> (x', y') holds provided each grammar in T that
maps x to y also maps x' to y', or statistically, assigns a
probability to (x', y') that is at least as large as the probability
assigned to (x, y). We develop a formal theory of implicational
universals (T-orders) in OT, HG, Maxent, and their stochastic
variants, and show how to efficiently compute them. Maxent T-orders
turn out to behave counterintuitively in being sensitive to the number
of candidates.