Emilie Jackson
Job Market Candidate

Stanford University
Department of Economics
579 Jane Stanford Way
Stanford, CA 94305
650-464-0788
emilyj91@stanford.edu

Available for interviews at:
  - European Job Market in Rotterdam (Dec 18-19)
  - ASSA Annual Meeting in San Diego (Jan 3-5)


Curriculum Vitae

Primary Fields:
Public Finance, Health Economics

Secondary field:
Labor Economics

Expected Graduation Date:
June, 2020

References:
Mark Duggan (Primary):
mgduggan@stanford.edu

Paul Oyer:
pauloyer@stanford.edu

Raj Chetty:
chetty@fas.harvard.edu

Petra Persson:
perssonp@stanford.edu

Gopi Shah Goda:
gopi@stanford.edu

Job Market Paper

Availability of the Gig Economy and Long Run Labor Supply Effects for the Unemployed

A growing number of American workers earn income through platforms in the gig economy which provide access to flexible work (e.g. Uber, Lyft, TaskRabbit). This major labor market innovation presents individuals with a new set of income smoothing opportunities when they lose their job. I use US administrative tax records to measure take up of gig employment following unemployment spells and to evaluate the effect of working in the gig economy on workers' overall labor supply, skill acquisition, and earnings trajectory. To do so, I utilize penetration of gig platforms across counties over time, along with variation in individual-level predicted propensities for gig work based on pre-unemployment characteristics. In the short run, I show an increase in gig work following an unemployment spell and that individuals are correspondingly better able to smooth the resulting drop in income. However, individuals stay in these positions and are less likely to return to traditional wage jobs. Thus, several years later, prime-age (25-54) workers' income lags significantly behind comparable individuals who did not have gig work available. Among older workers (55+), I find an increase in gig work corresponds to a postponement of Social Security retirement benefits and a reduction in receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI).

Publications

The Effects of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage and Labor Market Outcomes
(with Mark Duggan and Gopi Shah Goda) National Tax Journal, 72:2, pp. 261-322.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes several provisions designed to expand health insurance coverage that also alter the tie between employment and health insurance. In this paper, we exploit variation across geographic areas in the potential impact of the ACA to estimate its effect on health insurance and labor market outcomes in its first four years. Our findings indicate that approximately 70 percent of the increase in health insurance coverage since 2013 is due to the ACA. We also find that these increases in health insurance coverage did not result in statistically significant changes in labor market outcomes.


Working Papers

The Impact of the Affordable Care Act: Evidence from California's Hospital Sector
(with Mark Duggan and Atul Gupta) R&R, AEJ: Economic Policy


The Affordable Care Act (ACA) authorized the largest expansion of public health insurance in the U.S. since the mid-1960s. We exploit ACA-induced changes in the discontinuity in coverage at age 65 using a regression discontinuity based design to examine effects of the expansion on health insurance coverage, hospital use, and patient health. We then link these changes to effects on hospital finances. We show that a substantial share of the federally-funded Medicaid expansion substituted for existing locally-funded safety net programs. Despite this offset, the expansion produced a substantial increase in hospital revenue and profitability, with larger gains for government hospitals. On the benefits side, we do not detect significant improvements in patient health, although the expansion led to substantially greater hospital and emergency room use, and a reallocation of care from public to private and better-quality hospitals.


Is Gig Work Replacing Traditional Employment? Evidence from Two Decades of Tax Returns
(with Brett Collins, Andrew Garin, Dmitri Koustas, and Mark Payne)


We examine the universe of tax returns in order to reconcile seemingly contradictory facts about the rise of alternative work arrangements in the United States. Focusing on workers in the "1099 workforce,"" we document the share of the workforce with income from alternative, non-employee work arrangements has grown by 1.9 percentage points of the workforce from 2000 to 2016. More than half of this increase occurred over 2013 to 2016 and can be attributed almost entirely to dramatic growth among gigs mediated through online labor platforms. We find that the rise in online platform work for labor is driven by earnings that are secondary and supplemental sources of income. Many of these jobs do not show up in self-employment tax records: approximately 44 percent of the overall growth in the 1099 economy comes from people who do not file self-employment taxes. Examining the relationship between 1099s and self-employment tax records more generally, we find that the previously documented increases in self-employment tax filings since 2007 are largely driven by workers without 1099s. We discuss implications of these findings for tax administration and measurement of alternative work using tax data.


The Rise of Alternative Work Arrangements: Evidence and Implications for Tax Filing and Benefit Coverage
(with Adam Looney and Shanthi Ramnath)


We use administrative tax data to provide a detailed examination of demographic and economic characteristics of self-employed individuals, how their share of the workforce has changed over time, and the implications of that change for benefits coverage. We find that essentially all of the increase in self-employment since 1999 is among individuals with little or no business-related deductions, who appear to be almost exclusively providing labor services. Furthermore, large differences in benefits coverage exist; the self-employed are less likely to be covered by health insurance or to participate in or make contributions to a retirement account than employees.


A Method for Measuring the Efficiency of Production over Time and an Application to Wikipedia's Evolution

Wikipedia has been successful despite its purely decentralized production. Given its size, it is important to know whether editors produce the articles in an efficient manner. I introduce a new measure of dynamic efficiency and use it to evaluate the ordering of Wikipedia's article creation. At any given point in time, editors have created roughly 85% of the maximum possible views. An article's probability of being created is significantly and substantially increasing in its relative number of connections (links from other Wikipedia pages). Frequent editors tend to produce highly-viewed articles while infrequent editors tend to produce highly-connected articles.


Migration Responses to the Affordable Care Act

I study the migration response to the geographic variation in Medicaid eligibility that was created from the way that the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was implemented. Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I estimate whether or not individuals who would be eligible for Medicaid only in expansion states are responding to the geographic variation by comparing them to individuals who are not eligible in any states. I do not find a significant change in migration, though point estimates suggest that Medicaid-eligible individuals are less likely to move out of expansion states after the Medicaid expansion. Further, I find suggestive evidence of an increase in migration from non-expansion to expansion states among demographic bins where individuals that had lower rates of health insurance coverage pre-ACA, and thus the most to gain.