Professor of Education and Linguistics

Stanford University

Stanford, California 94305-3096

Telephone (415) 725-1249, Facsimile (415) 725-7412

Electronic mail -->


Professor of Education and Linguistics, Stanford University. 1990 -->

Eugene M. Lang Visiting Professor for Issues of Social Change, sponsored

by the Depts. of Linguistics, Anthropology, Black Studies, Education, English, and Sociology , Swarthmore College, 1996-1997.

Director, Stanford Teacher Ed. Program, Stanford University.1994-96.

Research Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences,1988-89.

Associate Professor of Linguistics, Anthropology, and Foreign Language Ed., The University of Texas at Austin, 1984-1990.

Visiting Scholar, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C., 1982-83.

Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Anthropology, U. of Texas, 1979-84.

Assistant Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Swarthmore College, 1978-79.

Lecturer, Black Studies, Linguistics, Soc., & Anthro., Swarthmore College, 1975-78.


B.A. Temple University, Speech/Rhetoric Major..................1972

M.A. University of Pennsylvania, Linguistics.......................1976

Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania, Linguistics.......................1979

Dissertation: Linguistic Style Shifting in Black English

Dissertation Committee: Supervisor-->Professor William Labov

Professor John Fought

Professor Dell Hymes

Sociological Supervision-->Professor Erving Goffman


American Anthropological Association

American Association of Applied Linguistics

American Educational Research Association

American Dialect Society

Conference for College Composition and Communication

Linguistic Society of America

Modern Language Association

National Council of Teachers of English

Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages


Stanford University, St. Clair Drake Teaching Award. 1999-2000.

Educator of the Year: 1999. 100 Black Men of Silicon Valley, Inc.

O.E.R.I./National Center for Postsecondary Information: P.I. Community

College survey of K-12 teacher preparation, on-going.

Eugene M. Lang Visiting Professor for Issues of Social Change: Sponsored by

the Departments of Linguistics, Anthropology, Black Studies, Education,

English, and Sociology, Swarthmore College,1996-97.

O.E.R.I./Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE), P.I., A

National Survey of "categorical programs" in service to

language minority students. 1992 - 1995.

Stanford University, St. Clair Drake Teaching Award. 1992-93.

National Science Foundation, P.I., Linguistic Diversity, Literacy and

related consequences for Human Health and Environmental

Change. 1991-1993. Award Number 9196039

Center For Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Fellowship,


National Science Foundation (#BNS87-00864) in support of CASBS


President's Associate Teaching Excellence Award, University of


University of Texas Research Institute, Faculty research award,


National Science Foundation, Travel Award to the 16th International

Congress of Linguistics, Berlin: DDR, 1987.

University of Texas Policy Research Institute, Research award, 1986.

Black Street Speech; received an "Outstanding Academic Book

Award."Choice, 1984.

National Research Council and Ford Foundation, Postdoctoral

Fellowship for American Minorities. 1982-83.

The American Council of Learned Societies, Grant-in-aid, 1980-81.

University of Texas Research Institute, Summer Research Award,1980 & 1982.

Fontaine Fellow, University of Pennsylvania, 1974-1978.

National Science Foundation, Research Fellow for William Labov,


The Ford Foundation, Travel and Study award, 1972-1973.


Director, Stanford Teacher Education Program. 1994-1996.

Vice-Chair, Board of Trustees, Center for Applied Linguistics,


President, American Dialect Society 1992-1994.

Chairman, American Linguistics Research Institute, Inc.


Current Consulting Activities:

Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J.

National Fair Housing Alliance, Washington, D.C.

National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA.

U.S. Office of Civil Rights, San Francisco, CA.


Linguistic Society of America: Elected representative to the Executive

Committee, 1998 -->

National Research Council and Ford Foundation: Postdoctoral Advisory

Committee, 1998 -->

National Research Council and O.E.R.I.: Postdoctoral Advisory Committee to the five National O.E.R.I. Research Institutes, 1998 -->

American Association of Applied Linguistics: Language Policy Advisory

Committee, 1998 -->

Corporation for Public Broadcasting/PBS: National Linguistic Advisory

Committee, Documentary film: "Do you speak American," 1997 -->

Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary: International Linguistic Advisory

Committee, 1997 -->

The American Heritage College Dictionary: Linguistic Usage Advisory

Committee 1996-->

Carnegie Center for the Study of Adolescence: Member, Advisory Committee, Stanford University, 1996 -->

National Science Foundation, Linguistics Program: Member, National Advisory Committee for the Human Capital Initiative, 1995.

(Web page)

National Science Foundation: Member, National Advisory Committee for Social, Behavior, and Economic Sciences - 1992 --> 1995.

President, American Dialect Society, 1992-1994.

Vice-President, American Dialect Society, 1991-1992.

Linguistic Advisory Committee member, Center for the International Exchange of Scholars / Fulbright Scholars program. 1990 - 1993.

Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and United Negro College Fellowship program for Faculty at Historically Black Colleges, Advisory Committee member, 1990 --> 1996.

Educational Testing Service, Research Advisory Panel, 1990 --> 1996.

Vice-Chair, Board of Trustees, Center for Applied Linguistics, 1983- 1989.

Linguistic Society of America: Member, Committee on Education and Linguistics, 1994 --> 1998.

Shoot for the Stars, Inc. 1995 --> present: Member, Board of Directors.

Eastside College Preparatory School, East Palo Alto, California. Founding

member of the Board of directors, 1996 --> present.

American Linguistics Research Institute: Member, Board of Directors, 1985-1988.

George Washington Carver Museum, Austin, TX.: Member, Board of Directors, 1984-1990.

Public Broadcasting System: The Story of English. (A nine hour video documentary on the history and diversity of the English language.)

Member, National Advisory Committee,

Numerous reviews for NSF, NEH, NIH, CASBS, O.E.R.I, U.S. Dept. of Ed. private foundations, and various journals related to Linguistics & Education.


Member: Editoroal Board, Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, Mahwah,

N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2001

Member, Editorial Board, Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey, Cambridge University Press. A four volume set published in 1988. F. Newmeyer, (ed.).

Member, Editorial Board, McGill Journal of Education. McGill University. 1993-1998.

Member, Editorial Board, American Speech, Journal of the American

Dialect Society, 1983-89.

Member, Editorial Board, Texas Linguistics Series, University of Texas Press. 1984-90.


Applied Linguistics, including educational and social applications of linguistic science, with special emphasis on the problems of minority groups. Applications of linguistics to teacher education. Sociolinguistics, specializing in quantitative analyses of linguistic variation and languages/dialects in contact. Controlled experiments of housing discrimination based on speech. Policy analyses of language minority students, including speakers of nonstandard dialects. Studies of professional negligence and malpractice in educational contexts. Linguistic diversity and literacy. Language attitude analyses and related policy implications. Linguistic prejudice and discrimination. Historical linguistics. Interdisciplinary approaches to discourse analyses. International comparisons of educational needs and development in socially stratified speech communities. Correlational analyses of linguistic background and differential access to health care. Language, equity, and environmental change. Development of econolinguistic theory as a linguistic diagnostic in support of public policies for education, medicine, and law.


A. Books:

2000: Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic Pride and Racial Prejudice.

New York: Oxford University Press.

1999: Out of the Mouths of Slaves: African American Language

and Educational Malpractice. Austin: University of Texas Press.

1983 Black Street Speech: Its History, Structure and Survival. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1984-85 Outstanding Academic Book Award, by Choice.

1989 Japanese Translation of Black Street Speech, by Takeshi Higashi Ph.D. Tokyo: New Currents International Co., Ltd.

B. Edited Volumes:

1998 with Salikoko Mufwene, John Rickford, and Guy Bailey (eds.), African American English.: Structure, history and use. London: Routledge.

1997 with Gregory Guy, Crawford Feagin, and Deborah Schriffrin

(eds.), A Social Science of Language; Volume 2. Social interaction

and discourse structures. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

1996 with Gregory Guy, Crawford Feagin, and Deborah Schriffrin

(eds.), A Social Science of Language. Philadelphia: John Benjamins; Volume 1. Variation and change in language and society.

1984 with Joel Sherzer (eds.), Language in Use: Readings in Sociolinguistics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall inc.

1988 with K. Ferrara, B. Brown, and K. Walters (eds.), Linguistic Change and Contact, Texas Linguistics Forum #30: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation. Austin: Department of Linguistics, University of Texas.

C. Selected Articles and Chapters:

2002)"African American Language and Literacy" In M. Schleppegrell and M.C.

Colombi (eds). Developing Advanced Literacy in First and Second Languages: Meaning with Power, pp. 177-188. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

2001 "Applying linguistic knowledge of African American English to help

students learn and teachers teach. In Sonja Lanehart (ed). Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English. pp 319-330. Philadephia: John Benjamins.

2001. "Variation." In Alesandro Duranti (ed.) Key Terms in Language and Culture..

Pp. 260-263. Malden, MA.: Blackwell .

2001 " A dissection of style-shifting." In Penelope Eckert and John Rickford (eds).

Style and Sociolinguistic Variation. pp. 109-119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2001 "American Parallel: Racial Conflict and the Ebonics Controversy:

Ethnolinguistic conflict & The quest for Educational Enhancement." In Ruth Wodak (ed) Loss of Communication in the information age. pp. 8-17. Vienna: Institute Für Sprachwissenschaft.

2001 "The Ebonics Controversy" In R. Mestrie (ed.) The Encyclopedia of

Sociolinguistics. London: Kluwer.

2000 "Variation" In Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. 9 (1): 259-262. Washington: American Anthropological Association.

2000 "Educational Malpractice and the Midseducation of Language Minority Students." In Joan Kelly Hall and William G. Eggington (eds.), The Sociopolitics of English Language Teaching. Pp. 104-116. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters,

1999 "Educational Implications of Ebonics." In J. David Ramirez, Terrence G. Wiley, Gerda de Klerk, and Enid Lee (eds.), Ebonics in the Urban Education Debate. pp. 43-50. Long Beach: Center for Language Minority Education and Research.

1999 "Perceptual and Phonetic Experiments on American English Dialect Identification." (with Thomas Purnell and William Idsardi). Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 10-30.

1998 "Linguistic Discrimination in Educational Contexts." In Volume 1: Language Policy and Political Issues in Education, Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Chapter 8. Ruth Wodak and David Corson (eds.). The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group.

1998 "Researching Race and Social Class in Language Acquisition and Use."

In Volume 8: Research Methods in Language and Education,

Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Chapter 11. Nancy H.

Hornberger and David Corson (eds). The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group.

1998 "Linguistics, Education, and the Law: Educational Reform for African

American Language Minority Students." In African American English:

Structure, history, and use. Salikoko Mufwene, et. al. (eds.). pp. 282-301.

London: Routledge.

1998. "Dialect." The World Book Encyclopedia, pp. 180. World Book

Publishing: Chicago


1997 "What's in a name? That by which we shall call the Linguistic

consequences of Slavery. In the Quarterly of the National

Writing Project. Berkeley: School of Education 17:9.

1996 "Dimensions of a Theory of Econolinguistics." In Greg Guy et. al, (eds.) A Social Science of Language. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. pp. 397-419.

1996 "Perceptions within a variable paradigm: Black and white detection and identification based on speech." In E. Schneider (ed.),Varieties of English Around the World: Focus on the USA. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 169-182.

1995 "The Law, Linguistics, and Education: Educational Reform for African American Language Minority Students." In Linguistics and Education. Vol. 7, pp. 87-105.

1993 "Research Trends for Black American English." In A. Wayne Glowka and Donald M. Lance (eds.) Language Variation in North

American English: Research and Teaching. New York: Modern

Language Association, pp. 153-163.

1993 "New and Prevailing Misconceptions of African American English for Logic and Mathematics." In Etta R. Hollins, Joyce E. King, and Warren C. Hayman (eds.), Teaching Diverse Populations: Formulating a Knowledge Base. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. pp.263-287.

1993 "Adapting Dialectology: the conduct of community language studies." In Dennis Preston (ed.) American Dialect Research. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 167-192.

1993 "Discrimination." International Handbook of Contact Linguistics.

in Nelde, H. P. et. al., (eds) Contact Linguistics. In press. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

1992 "Hypocorrection: Mistakes in production of vernacular African

American English as a Second Dialect." Language and Communication. Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 317 - 326.

1991 "Changing terms of Self-reference among American Slave Descendants." American Speech. Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 133-46.

1988 "Language and race: some implications for linguistic science." In

F. Newmeyer (ed.), Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey. Vol. 4, pp. 64-74. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Member of the editorial board.

1988 "Why 'What Works' hasn't worked for nontraditional students."

Journal of Negro Education, 57: 417-31.

1987 "The situational dimension of linguistic power." Language Arts, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 234-40.

1986 "Bilingualism and Bidialectalism among American Minorities."

Journal of International Research on Applied Linguistics, Gerhard Nichols (ed.), pp. 84-90.

1985 "Linguistic diversity and justice in America: growing complexity in a traditional national paradox." Urban Resources,

Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 31-34, 61.

1984 "Steady: progressive aspect in black English." American Speech, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 3 - 12.

1984 "Chicano English: the anguish of definition." In J. Ornstein-

Galicia (ed.), Form and Function in Chicano English. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. pp. 1 - 14.

1983 "A survey of Afro-American English." Annual Review of Anthropology, 12: 335-54.

1983 "Bi-Pidginization and African related Creole development." Southwest Journal of Linguistics, Vol. 6, no.2, pp. 166-84.

1980 "A reexamination of the black English copula." In William

Labov (ed.), Locating Language in Time and Space. New York: Academic Press. pp. 106 - 133.

1978 "The politics of black power handshakes." In Natural History October), pp. 34 - 40. New York: American Museum of Natural History. (reprinted often in other volumes, most recently below).

  1. Selected book reviews:

Language Learning Through Social Computing: Occasional Papers of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, 16. Robert Debski, June Gassin, and Mike Smith (eds.) Melbourne: ALAA & The Horwood Language Centre, 1997. Pp viii+224. In, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1999, pp. 502-503. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ancient Black English and the Hoo Doo Texts, by Traute Ewers.

Language in Society, 1998

Communicating Racism, by Teun A. van Dijk. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94, No. 3, pp. 683-685. 1988.

Twice as Less: Black English and the performance of Black Students in Mathematics and Science, by Eleanor Wilson Orr. Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 58, No. 3, pp. 395-403, 1988.

Language Variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White, edited by Michael B. Montgomery and Guy Bailey. American Speech, Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 265-271. 1988.

Language of Inequality, edited by Nessa Wolfson and Joan Manes. Language, Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 923-27. 1986.


Member, Stanford University Faculty Senate, 2000

Member, Stanford University Graduate Studies Committee. 1999

Coordinator: Ad Hoc Committee for the Applied Linguistics

Program, Stanford University.

Chair, Black Community Services Center, Director's Search

Committee. Stanford University.

Member, Provost's committee on Minority recruitment and retention.

Member, Carnegie Center for the Study of Adolescence, Stanford University

Member, University Librarian Search Committee, Stanford U.

Member, Language Literacy & Culture, Area Committee, Stanford University

Member, Social Science and Educational Policy, Area Committee, Stanford U.

Member, Symbolic Systems Research Program, Stanford U.

Member, Black Community Service Center, Stanford, U.

Member, African American Men at Stanford.

Faculty Advisor: Haas Center for Public Service

Faculty Advisor: Mellon Foundation grants for minority teachers.

Faculty Advisor: Undergraduate Scholars Program at Stanford

Numerous other ad hoc assignments, including confidential

conflict resolution.


Confidential linguistic consultation has been provided through legal testimony, depositions, and meetings with members of legal firms. Additional consultation has been provided at least once to each of the following organizations:

Alameda County Office of Education, Hayward, California

American Association of Applied Linguistics

Apple Computer Corporation, Cupertino, California

California State Department of Education, Sacramento, CA.

The Council for the International Exchange of Scholars Delaware State National Advisory Committee for Systemic Reform

Developmental Learning Materials, Dallas, TX.

Eastside College Preparatory School. East Palo Alto, CA.

Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J.

The Gordy Foundation, Los Angeles, California

The Hungarian Academy of Science, Budapest, Hungary

The Johnson Foundation, Racine, Wisconsin

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, New York.

The Modern Language Association, New York.

The National Endowment for the Humanities, Washington, D.C.

The National Fair Housing Alliance, Washington, D.C.

The National Institute of Education, Washington, D.C.

The National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

The National School Boards Association, Arlington, VA.

The National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.

The New York Times, New York, N.Y.

Public Broadcasting System, Washington, D.C.

The Oakland Unified Public School District, Oakland, California

The Rockefeller Foundation, New York

The United Negro Colleges, New York

The United Stated Department of Education

The University of Vienna, Applied Linguistics Institute