This is a list of target genes of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Suggestions for additions are welcome.

updated December 2009

There are a separate lists of papers on expression profiling (micro-arrays) on Wnt targets and on target genes that are components of the Wnt pathway (feedback targets)

Direct targets are defined as those with Tcf binding sites and demonstrating that these sites are important.

 Gene  Organism/system  Direct/Indirect  up/down  Ref.
c-myc human colon cancer  yes  up  He 1998
n-myc mesenchyme limbs up Ten Berge 2008
Cyclin D human colon cancer  yes   up
Tetsu 1999
Shtutman 1999
Disputed by Sansom, 2005
 Tcf-1 human colon cancer  yes   up  Roose 1999
LEF1 human colon cancer  yes   up Hovanes, 2001

Filali 2002

 PPARdelta human colon cancer  yes   up  He TC, et al 1999
 c-jun human colon cancer  yes   up  Mann B, 1999
 fra-1 human colon cancer  yes   up  Mann B, 1999
 uPAR human colon cancer  ?   up  Mann B, 1999
matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7 human colon cancer  yes  up
Brabletz 1999
Crawford 1999
Axin-2 human colon cancer yes up
Yan, 2001
Lustig, 2002
Jho, 2002
Nr-CAM human colon cancer yes up Conacci-Sorrell 2002
ITF-2 human colon cancer yes up Kolligs, 2002
Gastrin human colon cancer ? up Koh, 2000
CD44 human colon cancer  ?  up Wielenga 1999
EphB/ephrin-B human colon cancer ? up/down Batlle, 2002
BMP4 human colon cancer ? up Kim 2002
claudin-1 human colon cancer yes up Miwa 2002
Survivin human colon cancer up Zhang, 2001
VEGF human colon cancer yes up Zhang, 2001
FGF18 human colon cancer yes up Shimokawa 2003
Hath1 human colon cancer .. down Leow 2004
Met human colon cancer up Boon 2002
endothelin-1 human colon cancer up Kim 2004
c-myc binding protein human colon cancer yes up Jung 2005
L1 neural adhesion human colon cancer up Gavert 2005
Id2 human colon cancer yes up Rockman 2001

Willert 2002

Jagged human colon cancer up Rodilla, 2009
Tiam1 Colon tumors Malliri 2005
Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 Hepg2 cells up Du, 2006
Dickkopf Various cells, tumors up
Niida. 2004
Gonzalez-Sancho 2004
Chamorro 2004
FGF9 ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma up Hendrix, 2006
FGF20 Various cells, tumors Chamorro 2004
LGR5/GPR49 Intestine yes up Barker, 2007
Sox9 Intestine up Blache 2004
Sox9 mesenchyme down
Hill, 2005
Day 2005
Yano, 2005
Sox17 gastrointestinal tumors up Du, 2009
Runx2 chondrocytes up Dong 2006
Gremlin fibroblasts up Klapholz-Brown 2007
SALL4 Bohm, 2006
RANK ligand Osteoblasts down Spencer 2006
CCN1/Cyr61 Osteoblasts up Si, 2006
Sox2 Xenopus retina up Van Raay, 2005
Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Zhou 2004
Delta-like 1 somites
Galceran, 2004
Hofmann 2004
FoxN1 thymus ? yes Balciunaite 2002
matrix metalloproteinase-26 Human Marchenko 2002
nanog ES Pereira, 2006

Cole 2008

Oct 4 ES up Cole 2008
snail ES/EB up Ten Berge 2008
Fibronectin ES/EB up Ten Berge 2008
Frizzled 7 EC cells yes up Willert 2002
Follistatin EC cells, ovary yes up Willert 2002

Yao 2004

Wnt3a EC cells Zhang 2009
Fibronectin Mouse lung up De Langhe 2005
Islet1 Cardiac cells up Lin 2007
MMP2, MMP9 T cells Wu 2007
 Siamois  Xenopus  yes   up  Brannon 1997
 fibronectin  Xenopus  yes   up  Gradl 1999
 BMP4  Xenopus  ?  down  Baker 1999
 myogenic bHLH  Xenopus  ?  up  Munsterberg 1995
 engrailed-2  Xenopus  yes  up  McGrew 1999
 Xnr3  Xenopus  yes  up  McKendry 1997
 connexin43  Xenopus, Mouse  yes  up  van der Heyden 1999
 twin  Xenopus  yes  up  Laurent 1997
 connexin 30  Xenopus  ?    McGrew 1999
 retinoic acid receptor gamma  Xenopus  ?    McGrew 1999
dharma/bozozok  Zebrafish yes up Ryu 2001
 MITF/nacre  Zebrafish  yes  up
 Dorsky, 2000
Saito 2002
Yasumoto 2002
Stra6 Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells ?

co-induced by Wnt plus RA

up Szeto 2001
Wrch-1 Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells ?

Not through TCF

up Tao, 2001
TNF family 41BB ligand, ephrinB1, Stra6, autotaxin and ISLR Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells By Wnt plus retinoic acid up Tice 2002
Twist Wnt1 induced mammary cancer up Howe, 2003
Stromelysin Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells up Prieve, 2003
 WISP Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells  yes, but not through TCF (Xu, 2000)   up
Xu, 2000
 Brachyury  Mouse (Wnt-3A)  yes  up
Yamaguchi 1999
Arnold 2000
Proglucagon Mouse ? up Ni 2003
Osteocalcin Mouse yes down Kahler 2003
Cdx1 Mouse embryo Pilon 2007
cyclooxygenase-2 mouse (Wnt-1) ? up
Howe 1999
Haertel-Wiesmann 2000
Irx3 and Six3 Mouse brain Braun 2003
neurogenin 1 Mouse brain yes up Hirabayashi 2004
SP5 Mouse brain yes up Weidinger 2005

Fujimura 2007

NeuroD1 Mouse Brain yes up Kuwabara 2009
Nkx2.2 Neural tube yes down Lei, 2006
Gbx2 Neural Crest yes up Li, 2009
WISP-1, WISP-2, IGF-II , Proliferin-2, Proliferin-3, Emp, IGF-I, VEGF-C, MDR1, COX-2, IL-6
3T3-L1 Preadipocytes ? up Longo, 2002
 periostin  Mouse Wnt-3  not through b-catenin?  down  Haertel-Wiesmann 2000
Cdx1  Mouse Wnt-3A  yes  up  Lickert 2000
Cdx4 Mouse Wnt-3A Pilon, 2006
Cdx4 Zebrafish HSC ? up Davidson 2003
 betaTrCP    independent of transcription  up  Spiegelman 2000
 sFRP-2  Mouse (Wnt-4)  ?  up Lescher 1998
Pitx2 pituitary yes up Kioussi 2002
EGF receptor Liver up Tan 2005
Eda (TNF-related) Mouse hair follicle ? up Laurikkala 2002

Durmowicz 2002

E-cadherin Mouse hair follicle yes down Jamora, 2003
E-cadherin ES/EB down Ten Berge 2008
Keratin Mouse hair follicle yes up Dasgupta 1999
movo1 Mouse hair follicle yes up Li, 2002
Jagged1 Mouse hair follicle up Estrach, 2006
P16ink4A Melanocytes yes down Delmas, 2007
CTLA-4 Melanomas yes up Shah 2008
 mBTEB2  Mouse  independent b-catenin  up Ziemer 2001
FGF4 Mouse tooth bud yes up Kratochwil 2002
Interleukin8 Endothelial cells Masckauchan 2005
ret rat PC12 ? up Zheng, 1996
 connexin43  rat cardiomyocytes  ?  up Ai 2000
versican vascular smooth muscle cells yes up Rahmani 2005
Tnfrsf19 Somitic mesoderm yes up Buttitta 2003
Ubx  Drosophila  yes   up or down  Riese 1997
wingless  Drosophila  ?  up or down  Yu 1998
 Dpp Drosophila  yes  down  Yang, 2000
Engrailed Drosophila ? up Hooper 1994
 Dfrizzled2  Drosophila  ?  down  Cadigan 1998
 shavenbaby  Drosophila  ?  down  Payre 1999
 stripe  Drosophila  yes  down  Piepenburg 2000
Nemo  Drosophila up Zeng , 2004