Academic Publications



Investigations of Research Practices

research that concerns scientific practice itself, including everything from scientific integrity to research methodology.

Azoulay, P., Furman, J. L., Krieger, J. L., & Murray, F. (2014). Retractions. Review of Economics and Statistics, (0).

Baerlocher, M. O., O’Brien, J., Newton, M., Gautam, T., & Noble, J. (2010). Data integrity, reliability and fraud in medical research. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 21(1), 40-45.

Baker, J. P. (2003). The pertussis vaccine controversy in Great Britain, 1974–1986. Vaccine, 21(25), 4003-4010.

Banglawala, S. M., Lawrence, L. A., Franko-Tobin, E., Soler, Z. M., Schlosser, R. J., & Ioannidis, J. (2014). Recent Randomized Controlled Trials in Otolaryngology. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, 0194599814563518.

BEGINNING, O. (2004). Managing allegations of scientific misconduct and fraud: lessons from the “Hall affair”. The Medical Journal of Australia, 180(4), 149-151.

Bes-Rastrollo, M., Schulze, M.B., Ruiz-Canela, M., Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (2013). Financial conflicts of interest and reporting bias regarding the association between sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: A systematic review of systematic reviews. PLoS Medicine, 10(12), doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001578.

Bonetta, L. (2006). The aftermath of scientific fraud. Cell, 124(5), 873-875.

Braxton, J. M., & Bayer, A. E. (1996). Personal experiences of research misconduct and the response of individual academic scientists. Science, Technology & Human values, 21(2), 198-213.

Brown, A. W., Ioannidis, J. P., Cope, M. B., Bier, D. M., & Allison, D. B. (2014). Unscientific Beliefs about Scientific Topics in Nutrition. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 5(5), 563-565.

Budd, J. M., Sievert, M., Schultz, T. R., & Scoville, C. (1999). Effects of article retraction on citation and practice in medicine. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 87(4), 437.

Callaham, M. L., Wears, R. L., Weber, E. J., Barton, C., & Young, G. (1998). Positive-outcome bias and other limitations in the outcome of research abstracts submitted to a scientific meeting. JAMA, 280(3), 254-257.

Chalmers, I., & Dickersin, K. (2013). Biased under-reporting of research reflects biased under-submission more than biased editorial rejection. F1000Research2.

Christie, B. (1999). Panel needed to combat research fraud. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 319(7219), 1222.

Clark, S. E., Moreland, M. B., & Gronlund, S. D. (2014). Evolution of the empirical and theoretical foundations of eyewitness identification reform.  target=”_blank”Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(2), 251-267.

Cohen-Kohler, J. C., & Esmail, L. C. (2007). Scientific misconduct, the pharmaceutical industry, and the tragedy of institutions. Medicine and Law, 26(3), 431.

Cokol, M., Iossifov, I., Rodriguez‐Esteban, R., & Rzhetsky, A. (2007). How many scientific papers should be retracted?. EMBO Reports, 8(5), 422-423.

Consoli, L. (2006). Scientific misconduct and science ethics: a case study based approach. Science and Engineering Ethics, 12(3), 533-541.

Cook, D. J., Guyatt, G. H., Ryan, G., Clifton, J., Buckingham, L., Willan, A., … & Oxman, A. D. (1993). Should unpublished data be included in meta-analyses?: Current convictions and controversies. JAMA, 269(21), 2749-2753.

Dalton, R. (2001). Private investigations. Nature, 411(6834), 129-130.

Dahlberg, J. E., & Mahler, C. C. (2006). The Poehlman case: running away from the truth. Science and Engineering Ethics, 12(1), 157-173.

David, S. P., Ware, J. J., Chu, I. M., Loftus, P. D., Fusar-Poli, P., Radua, J., … & Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). Potential reporting bias in fMRI studies of the brain. PloS One, 8(7), e70104.

Davis, P. M. (2012). The persistence of error: a study of retracted articles on the Internet and in personal libraries. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 100(3), 184.

Dijksterhuis, A. (2014). Welcome Back Theory! Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9(1), 72-75.

Dyer, C. (1998). Doctor admits research fraud. BMJ, 316(7132), 645.

Dyer, O. (2003). GMC reprimands doctor for research fraud. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 326(7392), 730.

Ebrahim, S., Sohani, Z. N., Montoya, L., Agarwal, A., Thorlund, K., Mills, E. J., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2014). Reanalyses of randomized clinical trial data. JAMA312(10), 1024-1032.

Enders, W., & Hoover, G.A. (2004). Whose line is it? Plagiarism in economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 42, 487-493.

Enders, W., & Hoover, G. (2006). Plagiarism in the economics profession: A survey. Challenge, 49(5), 92-107.

Fanelli, D. (2009). How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data. PloS One, 4(5), e5738.

Fanelli, D. (2013). Why growing retractions are (mostly) a good sign. PLoS Medicine, 10(12), e1001563.

Fang, F. C., Bennett, J. W., & Casadevall, A. (2013). Males are overrepresented among life science researchers committing scientific misconduct. MBio, 4(1), e00640-12.

Fang, F. C., & Casadevall, A. (2011). Retracted science and the retraction index. Infection and Immunity, 79(10), 3855-3859.

Flaherty, D. K. (2011). The vaccine-autism connection: a public health crisis caused by unethical medical practices and fraudulent science. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 45(10), 1302-1304.

Francis, G. (2014). The frequency of excess success for articles in Psychological Science. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(5), 1180-1187.

Freedman, L.P., Cockburn, I.M., & Simcoe, T.S. (2015). The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research. PLoS Biology, 13(6), 1-9.

Fuchs, H. M., Jenny, M., & Fiedler, S. (2012). Psychologists are open to change, yet wary of rules. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6), 639-642.

Furman, J. L., Jensen, K., & Murray, F. (2012). Governing knowledge in the scientific community: Exploring the role of retractions in biomedicine. Research Policy, 41(2), 276-290.

Fusar‐Poli, P., Radua, J., Frascarelli, M., Mechelli, A., Borgwardt, S., Fabio, F., … & David, S. P. (2014). Evidence of reporting biases in voxel‐based morphometry (VBM) studies of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Human Brain Mapping, 35(7), 3052-3065.

Gardner, W., Lidz, C. W., & Hartwig, K. C. (2005). Authors’ reports about research integrity problems in clinical trials. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 26(2), 244-251.

Gelman, A., & Basbøll, T. (2014). When do stories work? Evidence and illustration in the social sciences. Sociological Methods & Research, 0049124114526377.

Gibelman, M., & Gelman, S. R. (2005). Scientific misconduct in social welfare research: Preventive lessons from other fields. Social Work Education, 24(3), 275-295.

Grieneisen, M. L., & Zhang, M. (2012). A comprehensive survey of retracted articles from the scholarly literature. PLoS One, 7(10), e44118.

Gottweis, H., & Triendl, R. (2006). South Korean policy failure and the Hwang debacle. Nature Biotechnology, 24(2), 141-143.

Guernsey, L. (2014). Garbled in Translation: Getting Media Research to the Press and Public. Journal of Children and Media, 8(1), 87-94.

Gupta, A. (2013). Fraud and misconduct in clinical research: A concern. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 4(2), 144.

Gupta, N., & Stopfer, M. (2011). Negative results need airing too. Nature470(7332), 39-39.

Haidich, A. B., Pilalas, D., Contopoulos-Ioannidis, D. G., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). Most meta-analyses of drug interventions have narrow scopes and many focus on specific agents. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 66(4), 371-378.

Healy, N. D. B. (1990). HHS: Gallo guilty of misconduct. Science, 22, 1499.

Ioannidis, J. P. (2015). A generalized view of self-citation: Direct, co-author, collaborative, and coercive induced self-citation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 78(1), 7-11.

Ioannidis, J. P. (2011). Excess significance bias in the literature on brain volume abnormalities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(8), 773-780.

Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). Implausible results in human nutrition research. BMJ, 347.

Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). Informed consent, big data, and the oxymoron of research that is not research. The American Journal of Bioethics, 13(4), 40-42.

Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). To Replicate or Not to Replicate: The Case of Pharmacogenetic Studies Have Pharmacogenomics Failed, or Do They Just Need Larger-Scale Evidence and More Replication?. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, 6(4), 413-418.

Ioannidis, J. P. (2008). Why most discovered true associations are inflated. Epidemiology, 19(5), 640-648.

Ioannidis J.P.A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med 2(8): e124.

Ioannidis, J.P.A. (2012).  Why science is not necessarily self-correcting.  Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 645-654.

John, L. K., Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (2012). Measuring the prevalence of questionable research practices with incentives for truth telling. Psychological Science, 0956797611430953.

Kintisch, E. (2005). Scientific misconduct. Researcher faces prison for fraud in NIH grant applications and papers. Science, 307(5717), 1851-1851.

Klein, O., Doyen, S., Leys, C., Miller, S., Questienne, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Low hopes, high expectations expectancy effects and the replicability of behavioral experiments. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6), 572-584.

Korpela, K. M. (2010). How long does it take for the scientific literature to purge itself of fraudulent material?: the Breuning case revisited. Current Medical Research & Opinion, 26(4), 843-847.

Kyzas, P. A., Loizou, K. T., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2005). Selective reporting biases in cancer prognostic factor studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 97(14), 1043-1055.

List, J.A., Bailey, C.D., Euzent, P.J., & Martin, T.L. (2001). Academic economists behaving badly? A survey on three areas of unethical behavior. Economic Inquiry, 39(1), 162-170.

Loftus, G. R. (1996). Psychology will be a much better science when we change the way we analyze data. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 161-171.

Lynöe, N., Jacobsson, L., & Lundgren, E. (1999). Fraud, misconduct or normal science in medical research–an empirical study of demarcation. Journal of Medical Ethics, 25(6), 501-506.

Madlock-Brown, C. R., & Eichmann, D. (2014). The (lack of) Impact of Retraction on Citation Networks. Science and Engineering Ethics, 21(1), 127-137.

Matthews, R. (2000). Storks Deliver Babies (p = 0.008). Teaching Statistics, 22(2), 36-38.

Marshall, E. (1998). Medline searches turn up cases of suspected plagiarism. Science, 279(5350), 473-474.

Marusic, M. (2008). The Kurjak plagiarism case: Scientific misconduct in Croatia. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 336(7637), 173.

Mello MM, Cohen I. Clinical Trials and the Right to Remain Silent. JAMA Intern Med.2014;174(9):1505-1506.

Michalek, A. M., Hutson, A. D., Wicher, C. P., & Trump, D. L. (2010). The costs and underappreciated consequences of research misconduct: a case study. PLoS Medicine, 7(8), e1000318.

Mundt, L. A. (2008). Perceptions of scientific misconduct among graduate allied health students relative to ethics education and gender. Journal of Allied Health, 37(4), 221-221.

Naci, H., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2015). How Good Is “Evidence” from Clinical Studies of Drug Effects and Why Might Such Evidence Fail in the Prediction of the Clinical Utility of Drugs?. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 55, 169-189.

Nath, S. B., Marcus, S. C., & Druss, B. G. (2006). Retractions in the research literature: misconduct or mistakes?. Medical Journal of Australia, 185(3), 152.

Neale, A. V., Dailey, R. K., & Abrams, J. (2010). Analysis of citations to biomedical articles affected by scientific misconduct. Science and Engineering Ethics, 16(2), 251-261.

Necker, S. (2014). Scientific misbehavior in economics. Research Policy, 43(10), 1747-1759.

Nelson, L. D., & Simmons, J. P. (2007). Moniker maladies when names sabotage success. Psychological Science, 18(12), 1106-1112.

Nicholson, J. M., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2012). Research grants: Conform and be funded. Nature, 492(7427), 34-36.

Nowbar, A.N., Mielewczik, M. Karavassilis, M., Dehbi, H. Shun-Shin, M.J., Jones, S., … & Francis, D.P. (2014). Discrepancies in autologous bone marrow stem cell trials and enhancement of ejection fraction (DAMASCENE): Weighted regression and meta-analysis. The BMJ, 348. doi:

O’Boyle, E. H., Banks, G. C., & Gonzalez-Mulé, E. (2014). The Chrysalis Effect How Ugly Initial Results Metamorphosize Into Beautiful Articles. Journal of Management, 0149206314527133.

O’Hara, B. (2011). Negative results are published. Nature, 471(7339), 448-449.

Okonta, P., & Rossouw, T. (2013). Prevalence of scientific misconduct among a group of researchers in Nigeria. Developing World Bioethics, 13(3), 149-157.

Oksvold, M.P. (2015). Incidence of data duplications in a randomly selected pool of life science publications. Science and Engineering Ethics, 1-10.

Papatheodorou, S. I., Tsilidis, K. K., Evangelou, E., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2015). Application of credibility ceilings probes the robustness of meta-analyses of biomarkers and cancer risk. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(2), 163-174.

Parrish, D. M. (2004). Scientific misconduct and findings against graduate and medical students. Science and Engineering Ethics, 10(3), 483-491.

Pfeiffer, T., Bertram, L., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2011). Quantifying selective reporting and the Proteus phenomenon for multiple datasets with similar bias. PloS One, 6(3), e18362.

Pryor, E. R., Habermann, B., & Broome, M. E. (2007). Scientific misconduct from the perspective of research coordinators: a national survey. Journal of Medical Ethics, 33(6), 365-369.

Pupovac, V., & Fanelli, D. (2014). Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys. Science and Engineering ethics, 1-22.

Redman, B. K., Yarandi, H. N., & Merz, J. F. (2008). Empirical developments in retraction. Journal of Medical Ethics, 34(11), 807-809.

Rennie, D. (1994). Breast cancer: how to mishandle misconduct. JAMA, 271(15),1205-1207.

Schroter, S., Black, N., Evans, S., Godlee, F., Osorio, L., & Smith, R. (2008). What errors do peer reviewers detect, and does training improve their ability to detect them?. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 101(10), 507-514.

Scott, C. T., & Magnus, D. (2014). Wrongful termination: lessons from the Geron clinical trial. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, sctm-2014.

Sheehan, J. G. (2007). Fraud, conflict of interest, and other enforcement issues in clinical research. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 74(Suppl 2), S63.

Silberzahn, R., Simonsohn, U., & Uhlmann, E. L. (2014). Matched-Names Analysis Reveals No Evidence of Name-Meaning Effects A Collaborative Commentary on Silberzahn and Uhlmann (2013). Psychological Science, 25(7), 1504-1505.

Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological Science, 0956797611417632.

Slingsby, B. T., Kodama, S., & Akabayashi, A. (2006). Scientific misconduct in Japan: the present paucity of oversight policy. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 15(03), 294-297.

Smith, J., & Godlee, F. (2005). Investigating allegations of scientific misconduct. BMJ, 331(7511), 245-246.

Smith, R. (2003). When to retract?: Reserve retraction for fraud and major error. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 327(7420), 883.

Steen, R. G. (2011). Retractions in the scientific literature: do authors deliberately commit research fraud?. Journal of Medical Ethics, 37(2), 113-117.

Steen, R. G., Casadevall, A., & Fang, F. C. (2013). Why has the number of scientific retractions increased?. PloS One, 8(7), e68397.

Stroebe, W., Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (2012). Scientific misconduct and the myth of self-correction in science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6), 670-688.

Tatsioni, A., Bonitsis, N. G., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2007). Persistence of contradicted claims in the literature. JAMA, 298(21), 2517-2526.

Tsilidis, K. K., Panagiotou, O. A., Sena, E. S., Aretouli, E., Evangelou, E., Howells, D. W., … & Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). Evaluation of excess significance bias in animal studies of neurological diseases. PLoS Biology, 11(7), e1001609.

Trikalinos, N. A., Evangelou, E., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2008). Falsified papers in high-impact journals were slow to retract and indistinguishable from nonfraudulent papers. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 61(5), 464-470.

Van Noorden, R. (2011). The trouble with retractions. Nature, 478(7367), 26-28.

Wager, E. (2007). What do journal editors do when they suspect research misconduct?. Medicine and Law, 26(3), 535-544.

Wager, E., & Williams, P. (2011). Why and how do journals retract articles? An analysis of Medline retractions 1988–2008. Journal of Medical Ethics, 37(9), 567-570.

Wagenmakers, E. J., Wetzels, R., Borsboom, D., & Van Der Maas, H. L. (2011). Why psychologists must change the way they analyze their data: the case of psi: comment on Bem (2011). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 100(3), 426-432

Wicherts, J. M., Bakker, M., & Molenaar, D. (2011). Willingness to share research data is related to the strength of the evidence and the quality of reporting of statistical results. PloS One, 6(11), e26828.

Wicherts, J. M., & Scholten, A. Z. (2013). Comment on “Poverty impedes cognitive function”. Science, 342(6163), 1169-1169.

Wicherts, J. M., & Bakker, M. (2012). Publish (your data) or (let the data) perish! Why not publish your data too?. Intelligence, 40(2), 73-76.

Wilhite, A.W., & Fong, E.A. (2012). Coercive citation in academic publishing. Science, 335(6068), 542-543.

Wilmshurst, P. (1997). The code of silence. The Lancet, 349(9051), 567-569.

Xin, H. (2006). Scandals shake Chinese science. Science, 312(5779), 1464-1466.

Yan-dong, Z. H. A. O. (2008). Analysis of PhD Graduates’ Attitude towards Scientific Misconduct and Its Causes [J]. China Soft Science, 5, 006.

Zhang, M., & Grieneisen, M. L. (2013). The impact of misconduct on the published medical and non-medical literature, and the news media.Scientometrics, 96(2), 573-587.

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