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Jacy: An Implemented Grammar of Japanese cover

Jacy: An Implemented Grammar of Japanese

Melanie Siegel, Emily M. Bender, and Francis Bond

This book describes the fundamentals of Jacy, an implementation of a Japanese head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) with many useful linguistic implications. Jacy presents sound information about the Japanese language (syntax, semantics, and pragmatics) based on implementation and tested on large quantities of data. As the grammar development was done in a multilingual environment, Jacy also showcases both multilingual concepts and differences among the languages and demonstrates the usefulness of semantic analysis in language technology applications.

Melanie Siegel is professor of information science at Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences, Germany. Emily M. Bender is professor in the Department of Linguistics, adjunct professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, faculty director of the Master of Science in Computational Linguistics, and director of the Computational Linguistics Laboratory, all at the University of Washington. Francis Bond is associate professor in the Division of Linguistics and Multilingual Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Contents

  • Preface
  • Notational Conventions and Symbols
  • 1 Introduction
    • 1.1 History of the Grammar
    • 1.2 Theoretical Framework and Development Tools
    • 1.3 Jacy among other HPSG Grammars of Japanese
    • 1.4 Jacy and Multilingual Grammar Engineering
    • 1.5 How this Book is Structured
    • 1.6 Further Reading
  • 2 JACY in Different Application Domains
    • 2.1 Appointment Scheduling in Machine Translation
    • 2.2 Email in the Banking Domain
    • 2.3 Hybrid Language Processing
    • 2.4 Dictionary Definition Sentences
    • 2.5 Open Source Machine Translation
    • 2.6 The Full Jacy System
    • 2.7 Summary and Further Reading
  • 3 Basic Japanese Phrase Structure
    • 3.1 Overview of HPSG
    • 3.2 Core Phrase Structure Rules
      • 3.2.1 Head-Subject Phrase
      • 3.2.2 Head-Complement Phrases
      • 3.2.3 Head-Adjunct Phrases
      • 3.2.4 Coordinated Structures
      • 3.2.5 Head-Specifier Constructions
      • 3.2.6 Head-Marker Constructions
      • 3.2.7 Utterance Rules
    • 3.3 Head-Initial Constructions
      • 3.3.1 The Position of Syntactic Heads in Japanese
      • 3.3.2 Head-Initial Modification
      • 3.3.3 Head-Initial Complementation
      • 3.3.4 Corpus Study
    • 3.4 Semantic Representations
    • 3.5 Summary and Further Reading
  • 4 Word Order and Subcategorization
    • 4.1 Properties of Japanese Arguments
    • 4.2 Previous Analyses
    • 4.3 Jacy’s Approach
      • 4.3.1 The Feature opt
      • 4.3.2 Required Adjacency
      • 4.3.3 Zero Pronominalization and Obligatory Overt Realization
    • 4.4 Summary and Further Reading
  • 5 Verbs and Adjectives
    • 5.1 Verbal Subcategorization Types
      • 5.1.1 Intransitive Verbs
      • 5.1.2 Transitive Verbs
      • 5.1.3 Ditransitive Verbs
      • 5.1.4 Copula Verbs
      • 5.1.5 Adjective Subcategorization Types
    • 5.2 Inflectional and Derivational Rules
      • 5.2.1 Stem Classes
      • 5.2.2 Ending Types
      • 5.2.3 Inflectional Rules
      • 5.2.4 Sample Derivation
      • 5.2.5 Stand-Alone Stems
      • 5.2.6 Derivational Rules
      • 5.2.7 Adjective Inflectional Types
    • 5.3 Auxiliary Constructions
      • 5.3.1 Aspect Auxiliaries
      • 5.3.2 Content Auxiliaries
      • 5.3.3 Perspective Auxiliaries
      • 5.3.4 Auxiliaries and Honorification
      • 5.3.5 Contracted Auxiliaries
      • 5.3.6 Summary
    • 5.4 Passive Constructions
      • 5.4.1 Simple Passives
      • 5.4.2 Adversative Passive
      • 5.4.3 Honorification with Passive Morphology
      • 5.4.4 Potential with Passive Morphology
    • 5.5 Causative
    • 5.6 Summary and Further Reading
  • 6 Nominal Structures: Linking Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics
    • 6.1 Ordinary Nouns and Noun Phrases
    • 6.2 Names and Named Entities
    • 6.3 Pronouns
      • 6.3.1 Demonstrative Pronouns
      • 6.3.2 Locative Pronouns
      • 6.3.3 Personal Pronouns
      • 6.3.4 The Reflexive jibun
    • 6.4 Nominalizers
    • 6.5 Temporal Nouns
    • 6.6 Noun Modification
      • 6.6.1 Noun Modification by Post-positional Phrases
      • 6.6.2 Relative Clause Constructions
      • 6.6.3 Pre-Nominal Adjectives
    • 6.7 Numeral Classifiers
      • 6.7.1 Semantic Representations
      • 6.7.2 The Analysis
    • 6.8 Summary and Further Reading
  • 7 Particles
    • 7.1 Co-Occurrence of Particles
    • 7.2 The Type Hierarchy of Japanese Particles
    • 7.3 Case Particles case-p-lex
      • 7.3.1 General Properties of Case Particles
      • 7.3.2 The Case Particle ga
      • 7.3.3 The Case Particle wo
      • 7.3.4 The Case Particle ni
      • 7.3.5 Other Case Particles
    • 7.4 Other Semantically Empty Particles
      • 7.4.1 Complementizers
      • 7.4.2 Coordination Particles
    • 7.5 Particles with Semantic Content cont-p-lex
      • 7.5.1 Adnominal-Specifying no
      • 7.5.2 Modifying Particles mod-p-lex
      • 7.5.3 Topic Particles
      • 7.5.4 Noun Phrase Conjunctions conj-p-lex
    • 7.6 Sentence Particles and Sentence Force sa-p-lex
    • 7.7 Omitted Particles
    • 7.8 Evaluation of Case and Modifying Particles
    • 7.9 Summary and Further Reading
  • 8 Other Word Classes
    • 8.1 Adverbs
      • 8.1.1 Adverb Morphology and Derived Adverbs
      • 8.1.2 Types of Adverbial Modification
    • 8.2 Interrogatives
    • 8.3 Demonstratives
    • 8.4 Summary and Further Reading
  • 9 Honorifics
    • 9.1 Honorific Forms in Japanese
      • 9.1.1 Three Types of Honorifics
      • 9.1.2 Interaction of Different Kinds of Honorification
    • 9.2 Previous Approaches
    • 9.3 Japanese Honorification in Jacy
    • 9.4 Evaluation
    • 9.5 Honorification and Machine Translation
    • 9.6 Honorification in Other Languages
    • 9.7 Summary
  • 10 Grammar Engineering
    • 10.1 The Development Environment
    • 10.2 The Grammar Development Cycle
    • 10.3 Integrating Treebanking
    • 10.4 Embedded Documentation: The Lexical Type Database
      • 10.4.1 Linguistic Discussion
      • 10.4.2 Exemplification
      • 10.4.3 Implementation
      • 10.4.4 Building the Lexical Type Database
    • 10.5 Automatic Error Detection and Correction
    • 10.6 Summary and Further Reading
  • 11 The Current State of the Grammar
    • 11.1 What is the Size of the Grammar?
    • 11.2 What is the General Coverage on Different Kinds of Data?
      • 11.2.1 Test Suites and Coverage
      • 11.2.2 The Hinoki Treebank
    • 11.3 How Can We Select the Best Interpretation?
    • 11.4 How Domain-Adaptable is the Grammar?
    • 11.5 How Far Can the Grammar Be Used in Multilingual Applications?
    • 11.6 Summary and Further Reading
  • 12 Conclusion
  • References
  • Index

November 5, 2016

ISBN (Paperback): 9781684000180 (1684000181)

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