Christopher Potts +> Papers


  1. Golberg, Amir; Sameer B. Srivastava; V. Govind Manian; Will Monroe; and Christopher Potts. 2015. Fitting in or standing out? The tradeoffs of structural and cultural embeddedness. Ms., Stanford and UC Berkeley. [bibtex]
  2. Chang, Angel; Will Monroe; Manolis Savva; Christopher Potts; and Christopher D. Manning. 2015. Text to 3d scene generation with rich lexical grounding. To appear in Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference of the Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing. Beijing: Association for Computational Linguistics [bibtex]
  3. Potts, Christopher and Roger Levy. 2015. Negotiating lexical uncertainty and speaker expertise with disjunction. To appear in Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Comments welcome! [bibtex; associated LSA poster; data and code]
  4. de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine; Marta Recasens; and Christopher Potts. 2015. Modeling the lifespan of discourse entities with application to coreference resolution. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 52: 445-475. [bibtex]
  5. Bowman, Samuel R.; Christopher Potts; and Christopher D. Manning. 2015. Learning distributed word representations for natural logic reasoning. In Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Integrating Symbolic and Neural Approaches: Papers from the 2015 AAAI Spring Symposium, 10-13. AAAI Publications. [bibtex; data and code]
  6. Potts, Christopher; Daniel Lassiter; Roger Levy; and Michael C. Frank. 2015. Embedded implicatures as pragmatic inferences under compositional lexical uncertainty. Ms., Stanford and UCSD. Revised April 21 [bibtex; slides; data and code]
  7. Liang, Percy and Christopher Potts. 2015. Bringing machine learning and compositional semantics together. Annual Review of Linguistics 1(1): 355-376. [bibtex; reference implementations]


  1. West, Robert; Hristo S. Paskov; Jure Leskovec; and Christopher Potts. 2014. Exploiting social network structure for person-to-person sentiment analysis. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics 2(2): 297-310. [bibtex; data and supplementary materials]
  2. Bowman, Samuel R.; Christopher Potts; and Christopher D. Manning. 2014. Recursive neural networks for learning logical semantics. arXiv manuscript 1406.1827. [bibtex]
  3. Sudhof, Moritz; Andrés Gómez Emilsson; Andrew L. Maas; and Christopher Potts. 2014. Sentiment expression conditioned by affective transitions and social forces. In Proceedings of 20th Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 1136-1145. New York. [poster; bibtex]
  4. Vogel, Adam; Andrés Gómez Emilsson; Michael C. Frank; Dan Jurafsky; and Christopher Potts. 2014. Learning to reason pragmatically with cognitive limitations. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 3055-3060. Quebec City: Cognitive Science Society. [bibtex; data and code]
  5. de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine and Christopher Potts. 2014. Developing linguistic theories using annotated corpora. To appear in Nancy Ide and James Pustejovsky, eds., The Handbook of Linguistic Annotation. Berlin: Springer. [bibtex]
  6. Acton, Eric K. and Christopher Potts. 2014. That straight talk: Sarah Palin and the sociolinguistics of demonstratives. Journal of Sociolinguistics 18(1): 3-31. [bibtex; data and code]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 2013. Conversational implicature: interacting with grammar. Ms., Stanford University. [bibtex; overview; code; counterexamples to Hurford's constraint]
  2. Socher, Richard; Alex Perelygin; Jean Wu; Jason Chuang; Christopher D. Manning, Andrew Y. Ng; and Christopher Potts. 2013. Recursive deep models for semantic compositionality over a sentiment treebank. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 1631-1642. Seattle, WA: Association for Computational Linguistics. [bibtex; supplementary materials; data, code, and annotation tools]
  3. Vogel, Adam; Christopher Potts; and Dan Jurafsky. 2013. Implicatures and nested beliefs in approximate Decentralized-POMDPs. In Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 74-80. Sofia, Bulgaria: Association for Computational Linguistics. [bibtex; Cards corpus]
  4. Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Moritz Sudhof; Dan Jurafsky; Jure Leskovec; and Christopher Potts. 2013. A computational approach to politeness with application to social factors. In Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 250-259. Sofia, Bulgaria: Association for Computational Linguistics. [best paper nomination; bibtex; data and info]
  5. Vogel, Adam; Max Bodoia; Christopher Potts; and Dan Jurafsky. 2013. Emergence of Gricean maxims from multi-agent decision theory. In Human Language Technologies: The 2013 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 1072-1081. Atlanta, GA: Association for Computational Linguistics. [bibtex; Cards corpus]
  6. Recasens, Marta; Marie-Catherine de Marneffe; and Christopher Potts. 2013. The life and death of discourse entities: identifying singleton mentions. In Human Language Technologies: The 2013 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 627-633. Atlanta, GA: Association for Computational Linguistics. [best short paper award; bibtex; Stanford Deterministic Coreference Resolution System]
  7. Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Robert West; Dan Jurafsky; Jure Leskovec; and Christopher Potts. 2013. No country for old members: user lifecycle and linguistic change in online communities. Proceedings of the 22nd World Wide Web Conference, 307-317. Rio de Janeiro: ACM. [best paper award; bibtex; data and info]
  8. Potts, Christopher. 2013. Presupposition and implicature. To appear in Shalom Lappin and Chris Fox, eds., The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory, 2nd edn. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 2012. Goal-driven answers in the Cards dialogue corpus. In Nathan Arnett and Ryan Bennett, eds., Proceedings of the 30th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 1-20. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. [bibtex; Cards corpus and the paper's code]
  2. de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine; Christopher D. Manning; and Christopher Potts. 2012. Did it happen? The pragmatic complexity of veridicality assessment. Computational Linguistics 38(2): 301-333. [bibtex; PragBank]
  3. Overgoor, Jan; Ellery Wulczyn; and Christopher Potts. 2012. Trust propagation with mixed-effects models. Proceedings of the 6th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Dublin, Ireland: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. [bibtex]
  4. Djalali, Alex; Sven Lauer; and Christopher Potts. 2012. Corpus evidence for preference-driven interpretation. In Maria Aloni, Vadim Kimmelman, Floris Roelofsen, Galit Weidman Sassoon, Katrin Schulz, and Matthijs Westera, eds., Proceedings of the 18th Amsterdam Colloquium: Revised Selected Papers, 150-159. Berlin: Springer. [bibtex; Cards corpus]
  5. Potts, Christopher. 2012. Conventional implicature and expressive content. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger, and Paul Portner, eds., Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning, Volume 3, 2516-2536 Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. [This article was written in 2008; bibtex]


  1. Maas, Andrew L.; Andrew Y. Ng; and Christopher Potts. 2011. Multi-dimensional sentiment analysis with learned representations. Technical report, Stanford Computer Science and Stanford Linguistics, April 2011. [bibtex; supplementary diagram]
  2. Djalali, Alex; David Clausen; Sven Lauer; Karl Schultz; and Christopher Potts. 2011. Modeling expert effects and common ground using Questions Under Discussion. Proceedings of the AAAI Workshop on Building Representations of Common Ground with Intelligent Agents. Washington, DC: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. [bibtex; Cards corpus]
  3. de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine, Christopher D. Manning and Christopher Potts. 2011. Veridicality and utterance meaning. Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing: Workshop on Semantic Annotation for Computational Linguistic Resources, Stanford, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. [bibtex; PragBank]
  4. Maas, Andrew L.; Raymond E. Daly; Peter T. Pham; Dan Huang; Andrew Y. Ng; and Christopher Potts. 2011. Learning word vectors for sentiment analysis. Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Portland, OR: Association for Computational Linguistics. [bibtex; data]
  5. Potts, Christopher. To appear. Pragmatics. In Ruslan Mitkov, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. [bibtex]
  6. Miller, Mahalia, Conal Sathi, Daniel Wiesenthal, Jure Leskovec, and Christopher Potts. 2011. Sentiment flow through hyperlink networks. Proceedings of the 5th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Barcelona, Spain: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. [bibtex]
  7. Potts, Christopher. 2011. Teaching pragmatics. In Koenraad Kuiper, ed., Teaching Linguistics, 51-65. London: Equinox Publishing. [bibtex]
  8. Potts, Christopher. 2011. On the negativity of negation. In Nan Li and David Lutz, eds., Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory 20, 636-659. Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications. [bibtex; data viewer; data and code]


  1. de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine, Christopher D. Manning and Christopher Potts. 2010. "Was it good? It was provocative." Learning the meaning of scalar adjectives. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 167-176. Uppsala, Sweden: Association for Computational Linguistics. [bibtex; related data]
  2. Munro, Robert, Steven Bethard, Victor Kuperman, Vicky Tzuyin Lai, Robin Melnick, Christopher Potts, Tyler Schnoebelen, and Harry Tily. 2010. Crowdsourcing and language studies: The new generation of linguistic data. Proceedings of the NAACL 2010 Workshop on Creating Speech and Language Data With Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 122-130. Los Angeles, CA: Association for Computational Linguistics. [bibtex]
  3. Potts, Christopher and Florian Schwarz. 2010. Affective 'this'. Linguistic Issues in Language Technology 3(5):1-30. [bibtex; data and code]
  4. Potts, Christopher, Joe Pater, Karen Jesney, Rajesh Bhatt, and Michael Becker. 2010. Harmonic Grammar with Linear Programming: From linear systems to linguistic typology. Phonology 27(1):1-41. [bibtex; OT-Help]
  5. Davis, Christopher and Christopher Potts. 2010. Affective demonstratives and the division of pragmatic labor. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager, and Katrin Schulz, eds., Logic, Language, and Meaning: 17th Amsterdam Colloquium Revised Selected Papers, 42-52. Berlin: Springer. [bibtex; UMass Amherst Sentiment Corpora]
  6. Potts, Christopher. 2010. Semantics–pragmatics interactions. In Patrick Colm Hogan, ed., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences, 758-759. Cambridge University Press. [bibtex]


  1. Harris, Jesse A. and Christopher Potts. 2009. Perspective-shifting with appositives and expressives. Linguistics and Philosophy 32(6):523-552. [bibtex; embedded appositives data]
  2. de Marneffe, Marie, Scott Grimm, and Christopher Potts. 2009. Not a simple yes or no: Uncertainty in indirect answers. Proceedings of the 10th Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, 136-143. Queen Mary University of London: Association for Computational Linguistics. [bibtex]
  3. Harris, Jesse A. and Christopher Potts. 2009. Predicting perspectival orientation for appositives. In Ryan Bochnak, Nassira Nicola, Peet Klecha, Jasmin Urban, Alice Lemieux, and Christina Weaver, eds., Proceedings of the 45th Annual Chicago Linguistic Society Meeting: The Main Session, 207-221. Chicago Linguistic Society. [bibtex]
  4. Constant, Noah; Christopher Davis; Christopher Potts; and Florian Schwarz. 2009. The pragmatics of expressive content: Evidence from large corpora. Sprache und Datenverarbeitung 33(1-2):5-21. [bibtex; UMass Amherst Sentiment Corpora]
  5. Potts, Christopher, Luis Alonso-Ovalle, Ash Asudeh, Rajesh Bhatt, Seth Cable, Christopher Davis, Yurie Hara, Angelika Kratzer, Eric McCready, Tom Roeper, and Martin Walkow. 2009. Expressives and identity conditions. Linguistic Inquiry 40(2):356-366. [bibtex]
  6. Potts, Christopher. 2009. Formal pragmatics. In Louise Cummings, ed., The Routledge Encyclopedia of Pragmatics, 167-170. London: Routledge. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 2008. Review article: Hagit Borer's Structuring Sense, Volumes I and II. Language 82(2):348-369. [bibtex]
  2. Potts, Christopher. 2008. Indirect answers and cooperation: On Asher and Lascarides's 'Making the right commitments in dialogue'. Commentary paper for the University of Michigan Linguistics and Philosophy Workshop on Implicatures, Nov 21-23. [bibtex]
  3. Potts, Christopher and Florian Schwarz. 2008. Exclamatives and heightened emotion: Extracting pragmatic generalizations from large corpora. Ms., UMass Amherst. [bibtex; UMass Amherst Sentiment Corpora]
  4. Potts, Christopher. 2008. Interpretive Economy, Schelling Points, and evolutionary stability. Ms., UMass Amherst. [bibtex]
  5. Potts, Christopher. 2008. Wait a minute! What kind of discourse strategy is this? Ms., UMass Amherst. [bibtex; annotated data set]


  1. Pater, Joe, Rajesh Bhatt, and Christopher Potts. 2007. Linguistic optimization. Ms., UMass Amherst. [bibtex]
  2. Davis, Christopher, Christopher Potts, and Margaret Speas. 2007. The pragmatic values of evidential sentences. In Masayuki Gibson and Tova Friedman, eds., Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory 17, 71-88. Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications. [bibtex]
  3. Potts, Christopher. 2007. The expressive dimension. Theoretical Linguistics 33(2):165-197. [bibtex]
  4. Potts, Christopher. 2007. The centrality of expressive indices: Reply to the commentaries. Theoretical Linguistics 33(2):255-268. [bibtex]
  5. Potts, Christopher. 2007. Into the conventional-implicature dimension. Philosophy Compass 4(2):665-679. [bibtex]
  6. Potts, Christopher. 2007. The dimensions of quotation. In Chris Barker and Pauline Jacobson, eds., Direct Compositionality, 405-431. Oxford University Press. [bibtex]
  7. Potts, Christopher. 2007. Conventional implicatures, a distinguished class of meanings. In Gillian Ramchand and Charles Reiss, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Interfaces, 475-501. Oxford University Press. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 2006. How far can pragmatic mechanisms take us? Theoretical Linguistics 32(3):307-320. [bibtex]
  2. Potts, Christopher and Tom Roeper. 2006. The narrowing acquisition path: From expressive small clauses to declaratives. In Ljiljana Progovac, Kate Paesani, Eugenia Casielles, Ellen Barton, eds., The Syntax of Nonsententials: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives, 183-201. John Benjamins. [bibtex]
  3. Potts, Christopher. 2006. Review of Siobhan Chapman, Paul Grice: Philosopher and Linguist. Mind 115(459):743-747. [bibtex]
  4. Potts, Christopher. 2006. Conversational implicatures via general pragmatic pressures. In Takashi Washio, Akito Sakurai, Katsuto Nakajima, Hideaki Takeda, Satoshi Tojo, and Makoto Yokoo, eds., Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 2006, 205-218. Berlin: Springer. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 2005. The Logic of Conventional Implicatures. Oxford University Press. [bibtex]
  2. Potts, Christopher. 2005. Lexicalized intonational meaning. In Shigeto Kawahara, ed., University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers 30 (UMOP 30), 129-146. Amherst, MA: GLSA. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher and Shigeto Kawahara. 2004. Japanese honorifics as emotive definite descriptions. In Kazuha Watanabe and Robert B. Young, eds., Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory 14, 235-254. Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 2003. The Logic of Conventional Implicatures. PhD thesis, UC Santa Cruz. [abstract; bibtex]
  2. Potts, Christopher. 2003. Expressive content as conventional implicature. In Makoto Kadowaki and Shigeto Kawahara, eds., Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 33, 303-322. UMass Amherst: GLSA. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher and Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2002. Model theory and the content of OT constraints. Phonology 19(3):361-393. [bibtex]
  2. Potts, Christopher. 2002. The syntax and semantics of As-parentheticals. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 20(3):623-689. [bibtex]
  3. Potts, Christopher. 2002. The lexical semantics of parenthetical-as and appositive-which. Syntax 5(1):55-88. [bibtex]
  4. Mikkelsen, Line and Christopher Potts. 2002. WCCFL 21: Proceedings of the 21st West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. [bibtex]
  5. Potts, Christopher. 2002. NELS 33 conference report. Glot International.
  6. Potts, Christopher. 2002. WCCFL 21 conference report. Glot International 5:5.
  7. Potts, Christopher. 2002. No vacuous quantification constraints in syntax. In Masako Hirotani, ed., Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 32, 451-470. University of Massachusetts, Amherst: GLSA. [bibtex]
  8. Potts, Christopher. 2002. Comparative economy conditions in natural language syntax. Paper presented at the North American Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information, Workshop on Model-Theoretic Syntax, Stanford University, June 28. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 2001. (Only) some weak crossover effects repaired. Snippets 1:3. [bibtex]
  2. Potts, Christopher. 2001. Three kinds of transderivational constraint. In Séamas Mac Bhloscaidh, ed., Syntax at Santa Cruz, Volume 3, 21-40. Linguistics Department, UC Santa Cruz. [bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 2000. When even no's neg is splitsville. Jorge Hankamer's Web Fest. [pdf; bibtex]


  1. Potts, Christopher. 1999. Vehicle change in anti-pronominal contexts. Ms., NYU Linguistics. [bibtex]


  1. Potts 1988
    Potts 1988