A Photo Comparative Perspective of the Central Pacific Railroad

Ju Li and Linda Ye

December 2017

Abstract

This paper attempts to identify locations along the original Central Pacific Railroad and to provide insight into the lives of Chinese workers during its construction. Over the course of five years, we have conducted a set of extensive field visits, tracing the original railroad route with the aid of modern technology in the first attempt to pinpoint precise geographic coordinates of the locations featured in historical photographs of the railroad. Drawing on our fieldwork, we compare historical archival photos with our contemporary photos taken at identical locations to document new findings about the location of railroad sites, the evolution of these railroad sites over time, and the daily lives of the railroad workers.

This paper has benefited from the support of Stanford University’s Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project. We are grateful to Gordon Chang, Shelley Fishkin, Hilton Obenzinger, Roland Hsu, Dongfang Shao, and Gabriel Wolfenstein for valuable comments and conversations that have benefited this paper. We also thank Kevin Hsu for editorial comments. We thank Larry DeLeeuw for his generous hospitality during our field research visits in Lovelock, NV and for valuable conversations regarding the Chinese cemetery in Lovelock.

I. Introduction

A complete picture of the Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR), first laid in 1863 by Chinese railroad workers largely employed under the Central Pacific Railroad Company (CPRC), remains elusive. While historical photographs of the CPRR construction have long existed, the precise geographic locations of these photos are often unknown. In this paper, we attempt to fill a gap in this area and further reconstruct the original railroad route through field and archival work as well as the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

Over the course of five years, we have conducted an extensive set of field visits along the CPRR. In this process, we have identified the locations depicted in historical photographs of the CPRR’s construction and have gathered the first record of these locations’ geographic coordinates. As a result of this fieldwork, we are able to compare historical photographs to the contemporary images we captured at identical locations and analyze the pairs side by side. The historical photographs are primarily drawn from the collection of Alfred Hart, the official photographer of the CPRC during the railroad’s construction. We also analyze a number of photos from photographers other than Hart in order to illustrate different aspects of the Chinese railroad workers’ lives. Comparing these images allows us to bridge past and present visual perspectives of the Central Pacific Railroad.

Our fieldwork-based photo comparisons achieve at least two goals. First, they help more precisely identify the locations of historical photographs of the original railroad and improve our understanding of these locations. With the aid of GIS technologies, we were able to analyze and identify the exact coordinates of virtually all the photographs that Alfred Hart had taken during the time he served as the official photographer of the CPRR. The complete list of coordinates for these locations is shown in Table 1. This effort also supports future research on this topic, as the locations in our fieldwork cover the full span of the CPRR construction route and prompt new questions regarding the evolution of geographic landscapes and human diaspora.

Second, these comparisons shed light on the lives of the railroad workers, the subject of a burgeoning area of research, notably under Stanford University’s Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project. We have generated side-by-side photo comparisons for the complete set of Hart’s collection of 364 photos, and discuss a selection of them in this paper. The selected photographs are grouped under three broad themes: rail site location, daily life of workers, and engineering achievement.

II. Historical versus present-day photos

Alfred Hart, the official photographer for the CPRC, recorded 364 photographs (referred to as stereoviews) during the period 1864-1869. Hart’s photos were taken from various angles, often from locations situated on jagged terrain especially prevalent in the sections of railroad built across the Sierra Nevada mountain range. After a century and a half of geological change, including weathering and erosion, and civil engineering developments that caused the landscape to evolve, it is often difficult to identify the precise locations of Hart’s photos without in-depth, and often repeated, field visits.  In this project, we were able to travel across and cover an extensive area that included the locations covered by Hart’s photos, and even beyond. Additional locations we have found and detail include Echo Canyon, where photographer Andrew J. Russell of the Union Pacific Railroad Company captured photos of Chinese workers, and Palisades, Nevada (now called Palisade), a former railroad town featured in an unnamed postcard. These photos raise some intriguing questions related to aspects of the Chinese railroad workers’ lives that were not documented by Hart, who had an institutional mandate from the CPRC to focus his photography on the CPRR construction route.  

Our photo comparatives and field work advance understandings of the Transcontinental Railroad in a number of ways. First, over a period of five years, we have walked the original railroad route five times, including repeated visits to the locations that Alfred Hart photographed. Our on-site fieldwork incorporated the use of satellite and GPS tracking to help us pinpoint the geographic coordinates of locations in historical photographs and then take our own photographs at the same locations.

We complemented our on-site fieldwork with archival visits to various national and local institutions. These included the Library of Congress, California State Railway Museum, Humboldt Museum, Golden Drift Museum, Golden Spike National Historic Site, and Lovelock Historical Society, among others. Our extensive archival research and interactions with staff in these institutions have yielded valuable information, such as interpretations of Hart’s photos based upon secondary sources, and reinforce our fieldwork.

Our approach can be characterized as combining “historiophoty” with onsite fieldwork (White 1988). This holistic effort leads to a more precise understanding of the locations along the original railroad route, as well as its relationship to the Chinese railroad workers’ lives and the engineering progress at the time. 

These historical photos reveal more than just locations; a number of photos in Hart’s collection feature individuals in action. Combined with our field visits, we can also infer additional qualities of the environment around the railroad construction sites, such as seasonal weather patterns or the changing contours of landscapes. These types of environmental information offer insights about the speed and technological progress of railroad construction, which also help reveal how the daily lives of the railroad workers were impacted.

III. Case studies

In this section, we use our analysis of several carefully-chosen images to demonstrate how photographic evidence can shed light on the lives of the Chinese workers who worked to build the CPRR. We group the photo comparisons under three themes: location, daily life, and engineering achievements. These themes are interrelated. For example, the locations of these photographs often define the types of engineering challenges that had to be overcome, and to which the railroad workers had to adapt to in their everyday lives.

Analyzing a set of multiple photos, beyond single pairings of historical and contemporary photos, is also worthwhile. For example, to accurately identify the present-day location of some of Hart’s photos, we often checked the locations of other photos close by in Hart’s photo sequence.

Similarly, a minute detail of a close-up subject in a photo can often be better understood by considering its broader surroundings through other photos. This speaks to the importance of comprehensive analysis in synthesizing elements beyond the information derived from a single site or location (Dixon 2014; Orser 2010).

We begin our discussion with Photo 327 “Chinese Camp. At End of Track,” which demonstrates why repeated field visits are crucial to location identification and contextual understanding. We visited the depicted valley five times to finally pinpoint the present-day location featured in this photo (currently in wide circulation). We have identified the location as the hill of the south bank of the Humboldt River. We are able to infer several aspects of the Chinese railroad workers’ lives from the photo. In the original photograph, we counted roughly 47 tents where Chinese workers would have lived. Assuming about 10 individuals lived in a tent, there would have been an estimated 500 Chinese individuals in this camp1. In contrast, the white workers and engineers lived in the train, a much more substantial shelter.

1Chinese railroad workers were believed to have been divided into teams of 20-40 individuals (Chen 2014). It is almost certain that each team lived in more than one canvas tent.

Hart 327

This particular instance of disparity in living conditions occurred during winter, as evidenced by the smoke in the photograph. Chinese railroad workers living in the tents did not have access to indoor heating, contrary to those who lived in the train cars. If we zoom in on the photo, we can see that linens were organized neatly, suggesting that the maintenance of sanitary conditions was important to the Chinese. Given the nearby presence of the Humboldt River, convenient access to water allowed the workers to clean their clothing easily. In the present day, the Humboldt River remains an accessible source of water.

Photo 335
“Building Water Tank. Trout Creek Mountains in Distance” sheds light on both the locational and human-geographical dimensions of the CPRR. This photo features camps, individuals, and actions. As in many others of Hart’s photos, no obvious location can be identified simply based on his original photo2. The sequence of the photos provides us with some hints about location. Interpolating from the locations of the adjacent photos, Photos 334 and 336, which we identified on our first trek to this valley in Nevada in 2012, this photo should have been taken in Ten Mile Canyon. Given that the distance between the locations featured in Photos 334 and 336 is about 3.5 miles, the location of this photo is expected to be somewhere in between. Yet, we could not pinpoint the exact location of the photo even by our fourth trek.

2

Some, but not all, of Hart’s photos specify the distance of the location from Sacramento, such as photo numbers 318 and 319.

Photo 334
Photo 336

As we delved further in our research, “Trout Creek Mountain” in Photo 335 emerged as an importance reference point. Based on a Google Map search, there is a Trout Creek Mountain located in the state of Oregon, two hundred miles northwest of Ten Mile Canyon. But given the discrepancy between the physical distance and the distance inferred from Hart’s photos, the search result location could not be the same as the one labeled in the photo. On our fifth trek, we found the location with some inspiration. What was different this time? Previously, we fell into the fallacy of searching for the location by walking along the present-day rail track. However, Hart’s photo location is far from this rail track, as the original rail track has long been abandoned and is several hundred meters away from the present-day track. Such changes to the track are also directly visible in Photo 169, in which the track in the Yuba Valley is now completely gone. In some instances, even the geological landscape has changed (Photo 173). The railroad in Photo 335 has been reworked a few times or has been relocated, complicating the identification of its present-day location. However, through this repeated search process, we have not only pinpointed the location of Photo 335, but also obtain a clearer view of the evolution of the railroad tracks over time.

Photo 169
Photo 173

Lastly, Hart described Photo 335 as “building water tank”. Considering this photo alone, it is not immediately apparent what the metal material on the ground may be used for. Referencing Photos 318, “Lower Crossing Humboldt River” and 319 “Winnemucca Depot,” we see large water barrels (towers) bound by three to five pieces of metal hoops. We can then see that the raw materials on the ground in photo 335 were likely used to construct water barrels, specifically to form the metal hoops for the barrels, similar to the ones depicted in Photos 318 and 319.

We will now focus on the two individuals in Photo 335. While it is uncertain whether the one dressed in dark clothing (with back facing the photo) is a Chinese railroad worker, the other dressed in light clothing is certainly one, identifiable by the traditional attire3. This identification attests to the fact that Chinese railroad workers did not just perform low-skill-intensive tasks required of railroad construction, but also served in positions that required blacksmithing and carpentry skills. The boxes featured in the photo are likely tool boxes. The water barrels were used to supply water for steam trains and used as drinking water, which was quite scarce given the high desert terrain (Ambrose 2000). Furthermore, the local sources of water in many locations in Nevada were also undrinkable, necessitating the transport of water from California via existing trains.

Lastly, we can see that seasonal patterns influenced the work of the Chinese laborers. The construction of this particular part of the railway took place in November 1868. A glimpse at Trout Creek Mountain in the background reveals a thick layer of snow. The harsh winter conditions provoked a sense of urgency in maintaining a steady source of water, especially as the workers faced leaving the area containing the Humboldt and Truckee Rivers, two major water sources along the route.

3

For further detail on the differences in the attire of the Chinese railroad workers, see following sections.

Photo 318
Photo 319
Among the photos outside of Hart’s collection, “Great Eastern” by Andrew J. Russell, the photo taken in Echo Canyon, deserves some thoughtful consideration4. The present-day location of Echo Canyon can be identified from the consistency in sedimentary layer patterns of the canyon.

4

Andrew J. Russell was the official photographer of the Union Pacific Railroad, as well as an active photographer during the Civil War.

Great Eastern
great_eastern2

The original photo contains seven individuals, five of whom are Chinese railroad workers. At the time, there was no universal uniform assigned to the Chinese workers; as depicted, many still dressed in traditional Chinese button-down clothing. The featured rail track was under the purview of the Union Pacific Railroad Company. Historical archives have shown that Chinese workers did not participate in the original construction of the Union Pacific Railroad. However, the reason they appear in the photo is that they participated in the maintenance of this track after the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad was completed. This is consistent with newspaper archives that suggest some Chinese railroad workers worked on the Union Pacific Railroad after the completion of the CPRR: “‘Corinne, (Utah) June 29.’ Three car loads of Chinamen leave here July 1 to commence work on the Union Pacific Railroad. After this gang is distributed the China force on that road will reach from Ogden to Bitter Creek, a distance of 250 miles” (PLACER HERALD, July, 1869). This photo shows an instance in which comparison with historical archives is helpful for uncovering nuances about the Chinese railroad workers that might otherwise be ignored.

Photo 317 “End of Track” exemplifies the multiple dimensions that photo comparisons can reveal. This photo was originally taken around the summer of 1868. Given the elevated vantage point of the photo, it was likely taken in a train car. The location is most likely between Fernley and Lovelock, NV5.

5

Interestingly, the 1968 epic Western film “Once Upon a Time in the West” was partly set in this area.
Photo 317
We can gain a number of insights from this pair of photos. First, the railroad runs in the east-to-west direction, whereas the photo is taken in the west-to-east direction. From our corresponding contemporary photo, we see that even today this area is quite barren, and that the nearest town is distant. From these photos, we see that the original single track has turned into a double track. At the time, the telegraph poles were to the south of the track and were unconnected. Today, they have been replaced with modern signal processing poles at the same locations6. Contrary to a number of other sites, the wooden rail ties in this photo are well-aligned and are even in length. In many other sites, the length of the rail ties can be quite uneven and rough. This is particularly evident for tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad, which were of considerably poorer quality (see photo “Greater Eastern” shown earlier)7. The higher quality of the CPRR rail ties stems from areas within the western United States having a natural advantage in wood quality. The individuals in the original photograph provide even more revealing insights. Hart’s photo features approximately 31 individuals. More than 15 of them appear to be Chinese rail workers. The others are five Caucasian (most likely Irish) workers, one lady, two children, and a few other figures more difficult to identify. The attire of the Chinese railroad workers is clearly different from the other workers, e.g. different style of hats. The shirts of Chinese railroad workers are typically not tucked in, while that of Irish workers are. Physically, the Chinese railroad workers, who largely came from Guangdong province’s Wuyi county, are visibly thinner than the Irish workers8. The lady standing on the rail track is likely Hanna Maria Strobridge, who traveled with her husband, superintendent of CPRR construction James Harvey Strobridge, during the construction process. Known as the only woman who stayed year-round with the CPRR line, she brought along six adopted children and also reportedly helped care for workers when they contracted diseases. On the right side of the photo, there are two Chinese rail workers tasked with delivering water. Historical research has shown that Chinese rail workers drank tea with hot water, while the Irish drank cold water and whiskey. The Chinese often boiled their water for the consumption of tea, and were thus less likely to be sick than the Irish workers. Water supply in this location was crucial, due to the dry nature of the summer here (Spier 1958). This is also evident in Photo 204, in which the Chinese worker is likely delivering water and tea to grounds outside of the tunnel. In addition to their consumption of tea, the Chinese railroad workers largely maintained their traditional cooking and food consumption habits. They frequently purchased cuttlefish, abalone meat, bamboo sprouts, seaweed, and other traditional Chinese ingredients from San Francisco merchants (Ambrose 2000, p.161-62)9. Photo 313 shows that large woks were set up for cooking at a camp near Lovelock, NV. This is consistent with archaeological research that has found remnants of pig bones and other food remains at the original railroad sites (Voss 2015; Gust 1993).

6

The difference between the conductor telegraph technology in the past and present day is more directly visible in photo 334.

7

Additional photographs of the Union Pacific Railroad and a comparison of its quality are available upon request.

8

The non-Chinese workers often drank their water from streams and lakes, which resulted in higher likelihood of contracting diarrhea and other illnesses (Ambrose 2000).

9

Food demand from the Chinese railroad workers was sufficiently high such that food supply stores were established at the end of tracks with stocks of ingredients (Nordhoff 1873).
Photo 204
Photo 313

To a large extent, the daily lives of the Chinese railroad workers were driven by the engineering needs and toil required by the construction efforts. The ensuing discussion provides glimpses into this dimension. Through these visual comparatives, we can find traces of the American economy and engineering technologies at the time of construction, as well as understand how their evolution shaped the appearance of their contemporary locations.

Consider photo 328 “Powder Bluff. West end of 10 Mile Canyon.”

Photo 338
This photo is about half a mile east of the Chinese workers’ camps shown in Photo 327. As the contemporary photo shows, the original railroad track is covered by grass today, and hence is extremely difficult to identify. Climbing to the top of the cliff shown in the photo’s upper left corner allowed us to uncover the original rail tracks. The ability to uncover overlooked details during the process of identifying this location, among others, speaks to the advantage of fieldwork-based photo comparison relative to merely map-based or secondary sources The railroad track that exists today has been relocated from its original location, a testament to changing conditions. First, railroads at the time were constructed to go around hills and mountains, as opposed to following a direct route. As technologies for railroad construction have improved, direct construction routes have become more preferable10. The speed of trains has also improved vastly, making indirect routes more unfavorable than direct routes through which trains can operate at faster speeds. Second, most rail lines in the 1800s were single-tracked. As rail traffic and rail car capacity increased over the years, more rails had to be renovated and repaved (Cootner 1963). Subsequently, more double-tracked rails were laid, a development started in earnest at the beginning of the 20th century. This is directly visible in Photo 317, “End of Track,” and at Tunnel No. 1 at Grizzly Hill (Photos 89 and 211 of the eastern and western portals, respectively).

10

The improvement in productivity of American railroad construction has been quantitatively estimated by Fishlow (1966). For example, he estimates that the incremental costs of satisfying 1910’s traffic load requirements under the assumption of 1870 technology would have been around $1.3 billion.
Photo 89
Photo 211
Nevertheless, some original railroad tracks have remained intact, or have experienced renovations at their same locations. This is best demonstrated by Photo 12 at Bloomer Cut or Photo 338 at Ten Mile Canyon. It is worth noting that despite the continued existence of some tracks, they appear to be less frequently utilized. For example, at the location of Photo 338, we did not witness a single train passing by in the ten hours we stayed there over five trips11.

11

On the contrary, a renovated line at Cape Horn opened the route to tunnel 33 in 1913. The original rail line is still in great working shape.
Photo 12
Photo 338
Lastly, urbanization has arisen at or around the original railroad sites. Since passenger service is not common today, many of the original railroad tracks have been rerouted to the edge of town12. In some instances, the residential areas at the time of construction are now abandoned. Consider Palisades, NV, depicted in a historic postcard shown below (author unknown). We can see that this town was once filled with houses surrounding the community center. However, this former residential area has become a ghost town today, as the contemporary photo shows that hardly anything surrounds the railroad track.

12

Railroad construction has been estimated to contribute substantially to urbanization during nineteenth century U.S. (Atack et al. 2010).
Palisades, Nevada
In contrast, Dutch Flat, featured in Photo 825 (taken by Hart outside of his collection of 364 photos), remains a small unincorporated community of about 160 people today.
Photo 825
Perhaps the most interesting residential area that emerged during the CPRR’s construction is Winnemucca, a town in Humboldt County, NV with a population of over 7000. Winnemucca was a supply center for equipment used in the construction to Promontory and was a transportation hub. It is believed that 400 Chinese workers lived there at the time of construction (Chew 2004), most of whom had arrived after the Gold Rush. The Chinese had arrived before the construction started at Winnemucca and set up camps and roadbeds. During the period of railroad construction, a Chinatown was established. Today, Winnemucca remains an active city, although the Chinese community has largely dissipated. As shown in Photo 320, what was formerly a railroad construction site in Winnemucca, a town which used to have a large Chinese presence, has now transformed into a well-groomed green space.
Photo 320
At Tunnel No. 10, we see that Chinese workers’ camps were situated right outside of the rail tracks (Photo 256). The work on these tunnels done by Chinese rail workers was arduous and intensive, with workers working in shifts on a 24-hour basis (Ambrose 2000, p.160). The labor-intensive nature of the work was also evident at Bloomer Cut, shown in Photo 12. Running 63 feet deep and 800 feet long, Bloomer Cut was constructed by workers moving the cement gravel barrel by barrel. Such laborious feats contributed to its reputation at the time as the “eighth wonder of the world” (Ambrose 2000).
Photo 256

Similarly, when comparing the original photo of Tunnel No. 15 (Photo 269) with today’s photo, we see that the tunnel and the hill covering it have been removed to allow for a double-tracked railroad. The removal of the hills is reflective of improved earth-moving, which now allows for the construction of open tracks rather than tunnels through this terrain.

Another example of differences in construction over time is the American River Bridge (Photo 229), a construction effort led by Charles Crocker. The same site has two parallel bridges today. One is a small remnant of the original bridge, while the other is a modern version. About three miles downstream from this river, there exists a gold mine that was exploited during the 1848 gold rush.

Photo 269
Photo 229

The roadbed carved out of granite at Cape Horn also illustrates an engineering feat (photo 57), as does the roadbed at Alta (Photo 70). The hardship and toil that the Chinese railroad workers suffered were embodied in their achievements, such as their famed feat of 10 miles laid in one day on April 28, 186913.

In the process of construction, the lives of many Chinese railroad workers were lost14. Other Chinese later settled in the locations of these construction sites, such as in Lovelock, NV. This is most vividly illustrated by the Chinese cemetery there, the original photo of which was found at the Lovelock Historical Society. The cemetery remains in present day, and is known to be in poorer condition than the nearby cemetery for the non-Chinese, visible in the distant back of its photo (below). In person, we counted about forty graves in this area, but many more workers are buried there beyond the visible number of graves15.

13

Although the date of the original photograph of the 10 miles laid sign is unknown, it must precede 1942, as the track shown in the photo was removed at the onset of World War II.

14

An estimated two thousand workers died in the construction of the railroad (Chew 2004).

15

The cemetery is still maintained today by Mr. Larry DeLeeuw, whom we have personally interacted with. He has built a fence around the cemetery to upkeep the land, and he places notices in NV newspapers on Tomb-Sweeping day every year in order to invite Chinese individuals to pay homage to their ancestors.

Photo 57
Photo 70
10 Miles Sign
Photo 350
Chinese cemetery

IV. Conclusion

This study presents a diverse set of photo comparisons of sites along the Central Pacific Railroad. We have conducted extensive field visits and used GPS tracking to pinpoint geographic coordinates of the locations of the historical railroad photos. Aided by the applications of GIS, we then built on our fieldwork to gain further information about the sites on the original railway and conduct analysis of compared locations. In this process, we have not only followed the locations through archival and fieldwork, but also shed light on the interaction between geography, engineering requirements, and Chinese railroad workers’ lives. Several cases also reveal why it is critical to consider photos jointly, rather than in isolation, as important contextual clues can often be found in another photo taken nearby and can thus lead to a fuller perspective on the aforementioned dimensions.

Our comprehensive geographic coordinate identification of the locations would assist future research in this area. We also hope to return to some of these areas and conduct in-depth studies of previously active Chinese communities where Chinese workers settled after railroad construction, such as Winnemucca.

By combining fieldwork with careful analysis of historical and contemporary photos, we can more precisely trace the path of the railroad, identify the sites of many historic photos, and infer remarkable details about Chinese railroad workers’ lives, the social disparities they faced, and the geographical and environmental challenges they overcame in constructing the Central Pacific Railroad.

References

Ambrose, Stephen E. Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Atack, Jeremy, et al. 2010. “Did Railroads Induce or Follow Economic Growth?: Urbanization and Population Growth in the American Midwest, 1850–1860?” Journal of Economic History, 34(2): 171-197.

Bain, David Hayward. 1999. Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad. New York: Viking Penguin.

Chen, Yong. 2014. “Uncovering and Understanding the Experiences of Chinese Railroad Workers in a Transnational Context.” In International Symposium on The North America Chinese Laborers and Guangdong Qiaoxiang Society.

Chew, William F. 2004. Nameless Builders of the Transcontinental Railroad.  Victoria: Trafford.

Cootner, Paul. 1963. “The Role of the Railroads in United States Economic Growth.” Journal of Economic History, 23(4): 477-521.

Dixon, Kelly. 2014. “Landscape of Change: Culture, Nature, and the Archaeological Heritage of Railroads in the American West.” In International Symposium on The North America Chinese Laborers and Guangdong Qiaoxiang Society.

Fishlow, Albert. 1966. “Productivity and Technological Change in the Railroad Sector, 1840–1910.” in Brady, Dorothy, ed. Output, Employment, and Productivity in the United States after 1800. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.

Gust, Sherri. 1993. “Animal Bones from Historical Urban Chinese Sites: A Comparison of Sacramento, Woodland, Tucson, Ventura, and Lovelock.” In Hidden Heritage: Historical Archaeology of the Overseas Chinese, Priscilla Wegars, ed., 177-212, Amityville: New York.

Kibbey, Mead B. The Railroad Photographs of Alfred A. Hart, Artist. Sacramento, CA: California State Library Foundation, 1996.

Kraus, George. High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific Across the High Sierra. Palo Alto: American West Publishing Company, 1969.

Nordhoff, Charles. 1873. California for Travellers and Settlers. Ten Speed Press: Berkeley, CA.

Orser, Charles. 2010. “Twenty-First Century Historical Archaeology.” Journal of Archaeological Research, 18:111.

Spier, Robert F.G. “Food Habits of Nineteenth-Century California Chinese.” California Historical Society Quarterly.  37.1-2, 1958.

Voss, Barbara. 2015. “The Historical Experience of Labor: Archaeological Contributions to Interdisciplinary Research on Chinese Railroad Workers.” Historical Archaeology, 49(1): 4-23.

White, Hayden. 1988. “Historiography and Historiophoty.” The American Historical Review, 93(5): 1193-1199.

Table

Geographic coordinates of photo comparatives based on field work.

No.DescriptionLatitude and LongitudeState
1Locomotive “Gov. Stanford”38°52’33″N, 121°8’5″WCA
2Trestle at Newcastle, Placer County38°52’30″N, 121°7’55″WCA
3View at Newcastle, 31 miles from Sacramento38°52’50″N, 121°7’42″WCA
4Road above Newcastle, Placer County38°52’33.80″N, 121°7’43.70″WCA
5View in Dutch Ravine, looking west, Placer County38°52’34.10″N, 121°7’5.80″WCA
6View in Dutch Ravine, looking east, 32 miles from Sacramento38°52’34.60″N, 121°6’3.60″WCA
7Embankment in Dutch Ravine, above Newcastle38°52’30″N, 121°5’39″WCA
8Approaching Bloomer Cut, from the West38°52’37.70″N, 121°5’16.40″WCA
9Bloomer Cut, 800 feet long, from middle looking East38°52’40.20″N, 121°5’10.30″WCA
10Bloomer Cut, birdseye view, looking west. 63 feet deep, 800 long38°52’43″N, 121°5’8″WCA
11Bloomer Cut and Embankment, looking East38°52’43″N, 121°5’8″WCA
12Bloomer Cut, 63 feet high, looking West38°52’43″N, 121°5’8″WCA
13View in Bloomer Cut, near Auburn38°52’39.40″N, 121°5’11.30″WCA
14Bloomer Cut, Eastern portion, 34 miles from Sacramento38°52’40.20″N, 121°5’10.30″WCA
15High bank, Baltimore Ravine38°52’58″N, 121°4’45″WCA
16Rock cut, near Auburn, Placer County38°53’9.40″N, 121°4’43″WCA
17Rock Ravine, near Auburn38°53’13.70″N, 121°4’38.40″WCA
18High Embankment, near Auburn38°53’22.90″N, 121°4’14.80″WCA
19Trestle near Station, at Auburn38°53’37.10″N, 121°4’5.40″WCA
20Cut near Auburn Station, Placer County38°53’56″N, 121°3’53.90″WCA
21Auburn Depot. Altitude 1,385 feet, 36 miles from Sacramento38°54’7″N, 121°3’56″WCA
22Road East of Station, at Auburn38°54’22″N, 121°4’1.20″WCA
23Road in Auburn Ravine, Placer County38°54’47.50″N, 121°4’4.30″WCA
24Lime Point, above Auburn38°54’47.50″N, 121°4’4.30″WCA
25High Embankment, Auburn Ravine38°54’56.N”, 121°4’1.90″WCA
26Auburn Ravine, Placer County38°55’10.40″N, 121°3’37.20″WCA
27Trestle near Lovell’s Ranch, 40 miles from Sacramento38°56’41.40″N, 121°2’24.30″WCA
28Road and Trestle, Lovell’s Ranch38°56’39″N, 121°2’34″WCA
29Trestle in Clipper Ravine, near Clipper Gap38°57’43.70″N, 121°0’43.50WCA
30Trestle bridge, 120 feet high, 600 feet long, Clipper Ravine38°57’44.10″N, 121°0’41.40″WCA
31Trestle bridge, Clipper Ravine, near view38°58’37″N, 121°0’3.70″WCA
32View above Clipper Gap, Placer County38°59’49.20″N, 120°59’48.30″WCA
33Locomotive Nevada, at Colfax, Placer County39°6’2″N, 120°57’9.40″WCA
34Locomotive Atlantic, at Colfax, Placer County39°6’3″N, 120°57’9″WCA
35Depot at Colfax. 500 feet long, 55 miles from Sacramento39°5’58.10″N, 120°57’9.40″WCA
36Colfax from the South, Altitude 2448 feet39°6’1.40″N, 120°57’13″WCA
37Teamster’s Camp, at Colfax, Placer County39°6’2″N, 120°57’13″WCA
38Canyon of American River from near Colfax. Cape Horn and railroad on the left39° 5’58″N, 120°56’40″WCA
39Long Ravine Bridge from the top of Cape Horn39°7’17″N, 120°56’11″WCA
40Long Ravine Bridge from the West, 56 miles from Sacramento39°7’22.50″N, 120°56’43″WCA
41Long Ravine Bridge, near Colfax. Length 1,050 feet39°7’25.50″N, 120°56’34″WCA
42Long Ravine Bridge from below, 120 feet high39°7’23″N, 120°56’27″WCA
43Cape Horn and Railroad from the west. Height above Ravine 1400 feet. View from near Colfax39°6’38″N, 120°57’2″WCA
44Am. River and Canyon from Cape Horn, River below Railroad 1400 feet, 57 miles from Sac.39°6’44.80″N, 120°55’56.20″WCA
45Sawmill and Cut East of Cape Horn, 59 miles from Sacramento39°07’44″N, 120°55’5″WCA
46Deep cut at Trail Ridge. Length 1,000 feet39°9’32″N, 120°53’9″WCA
47Secrettown, 62 miles from Sacramento. Altitude 3, 000 feet39°9’31″N, 120°53’4″WCA
48Secrettown Trestle from the east. Length 1, 100 feet39°9’39″N, 120°52’38″WCA
49Secrettown Trestle from the west. High 90 feet39°9’27.30″N, 120°52°55.50″WCA
50Tunnel Hill Cut, Depth 111 feet, 63 miles from Sacramento39°10’12″N, 120°52’39″WCA
51Bear River Valley, near Gold Run. You Bet and mines in the distance39°10’13.60″N, 120°52’20.60″WCA
52Bear River Valley, near Gold Run. Little York mines in the distance39°10’13.30″N, 120°52’24.60″WCA
53Cut through “Dixie Spur,” 64 miles from Sacramento39°10’25.60″N, 120°51’39″WCA
54Gold Run and Railroad Cut. Altitude 3,245 feet39°10’26″N, 120°51’41″WCA
55Flume and railroad at Gold Run. 64 miles from Sacramento39°10’33″N, 120°51’35.20″WCA
56Rounding Cape Horn, Road to Iowa Hill from the river in the distance39°6’45″N, 120°56°5″WCA
57Excursion Train at Cape Horn. 3 miles above Colfax39°6’45.20″N, 120°55’52.60″WCA
58Secret Ravine, Iowa Hill in the distance. 61 miles from Sacramento39°8’35″N, 120°53’52″WCA
59Hornet Hill Cut, west of Gold Run. 50 feet deep39°10’24.40″N, 120°51’46″WCA
60Train in Dixie Cut, Gold Run Station, Placer County39°10’26″N, 120°51’38.30″WCA
61Hydraulic Mining, at Gold Run39°10’24″N, 120°51’3″WCA
62Embankment below Dutch Flat, Placer County39°11’35.50″N, 120°49’56″WCA
63Dutch Flat, Placer County. 67 miles from Sacramento39°12’10″N, 120°50’21″WCA
64Dutch Flat Station, 67 miles from Sacramento. Altitude 3416 feet39°11’51″N, 120°49’56CA
65Forest View, near Dutch Flat, Placer County39°12’6″N, 120°49’55.50″WCA
66Sandstone Cut, near Alta, Placer County39°12’27.20″N, 120°49’2.20″WCA
67Alta from the South. Altitude 3,635 feet. 69 miles from Sacramento39°12’27.70″N, 120°48°48.20″WCA
68Alta from the North. Altitude 3,635 feet. 69 miles from Sacramento39°12’18.30″N, 120°48°38.40″WCA
69The Huntington at Alta, Placer County39°12’23″.60N, 120°48°41.30″WCA
70Blasting at Chalk Bluffs above Alta. Cut 60 feet deep39°12’15.60″N, 120°48°30.50″WCA
71Building Bank across Canon Creek, 87 feet high39°12’11″N, 120°47’41″WCA
72Culvert at Canyon Creek. 185 feet long-12 feet span39°12’14″N, 120°47’37″WCA
73Cut above Alta, Placer County39°11’55″N, 120°47’45″WCA
74Secrettown Bridge, 1100 feet long, 62 miles from Sacramento39°09’36.60″N, 120°52’36.70″WCA
75Superintendent Strobridge and Family, at Alta39°12’26.60″N, 120°48’47.50″WCA
76Giant’s Gap, American River. 2,500 feet perpendicular. 72 miles from Sacramento39°11’41″N, 120°46’56″WCA
77Green Valley and Giant’s Gap. American River, 1,500 feet below railroad39°11’45″N, 120°46’51″WCA
78Green Bluffs. 1,500 feet above American River, 71 miles from Sacramento39°11’48″N, 120°46’46″WCA
79View west of Prospect Hill. 75 miles from Sacramento39°14’9″N, 120°44’55″WCA
80Prospect Hill from Camp 21, 75 miles from Sacramento39°14’1″N, 120°45’5″WCA
81Little Blue Canyon. 74 miles from Sacramento39°13’57.30″N, 120°45’2″WCA
82Prospect Hill Cut. Upper slope, 170 feet39°14’4″N, 120°44’44″WCA
83Prospect Hill Cut, from the North39°14’22.30″N, 120°44’19″WCA
84View at China Ranch, 75 miles from Sacramento39°14’11.50″N, 120°44’42″WCA
85Fort Point Cut. 70 feet deep, 600 feet long39°14’14.20″N, 120°44’27″WCA
86View north of Fort Point. 76 miles from Sacramento39°14’14.60″N, 120°43’59″WCA
87Horse Ravine. 77 miles from Sacramento39°14’44″N, 120°43’28″WCA
88Horse Ravine Wall, and Grizzly Hill Tunnel. 77 miles from Sacramento39°14’43″N, 120°43’25″WCA
89Grizzly Hill Tunnel from the north. 500 feet long39°14’56″N, 120°43’21″WCA
90Bank and Cut at Sailor’s Spur, 80 miles from Sacramento39°15’7″N, 120°42’24.50″WCA
91Owl Gap Cut. 900 feet long, 45 feet deep. 80 miles from Sacramento39°15’7.60″N, 120°42’19″WCA
92Heath’s Ravine Bank, 80 feet high, 82 miles from Sac.39°17’14″N, 120°40’46.60″WCA
93Black Butte and Crystal Lake. 90 miles from Sacramento39°19’17″N, 120°34’31″WCA
94Crystal Lake. Altitude 5,907 feet, 90 miles from Sacramento39°19’7″N, 120°34’30″WCA
95Crystal Lake house. 90 miles from Sacramento39°19’13.40″N, 120°34’27.30″WCA
96Cascades on the Yuba River, near Crystal Lake39°19’57″N, 120°35’4″WCA
97Rattlesnake Mountain and Cascades, on Yuba River, near Cisco39°18’54.60″N, 120°33’24.70″WCA
98Black Butte, from the north39°18’51″N, 120°33’30″WCA
99Cisco, Placer County, 92 miles from Sac.39°18’9″N, 120°32’53″WCA
100Yuba Cascade and Hieroglyphic Rocks, on the Yuba River, near Crystal Lake39°19’6″N, 120°33’34.50″WCA
101Hieroglyphic Rocks, on the Yuba River, near Crystal Lake39°19’21″N, 120°33’52″WCA
102Hieroglyphic Rocks, on the Yuba River, near Crystal Lake39°19’21″N, 120°33’52″WCA
103Hieroglyphic Rocks, on the Yuba River, near Crystal Lake39°19’21″N, 120°33’52″WCA
104Yuba River, above Cisco, Placer County39°18’15″N, 120°31’32″WCA
105New Hampshire Rocks on Yuba River. Summer view. 96 miles from Sacramento39°18’38″N, 120°30’22″WCA
106New Hampshire Falls, on Yuba River. Summer view. 96 miles from Sacramento39°18’39″N, 120°30’21″WCA
107New Hampshire Rocks, looking down the river39°18’38″N, 120°30’16″WCA
108Scene on Yuba river, above Cisco39°18’36″N, 120°30’28″WCA
109Summit Valley, altitude 6,960 feet. Emigrant Mt. and R.R. pass in the distance39°19’5″N, 120°22’46″WCA
110Castle Peak from Lava Bluff. 10,000 feet above the sea. Western summit39°19’1″N, 120°22’50″WCA
111Castle Peak and Yuba River, from Summit Valley. 102 miles from Sacramento39°19’14″N, 120°22’43″WCA
112Scene near Donner Pass. Table Peak in the distance39°18’47″N, 120°20’28″WCA
113Castle Peak from Grant’s Butte. Western summit39°19’33″N, 120°19’24″WCA
114Scene at Lake Angela, Altitude 7300 feet39°19’22″N, 120°19’31″WCA
115Lake Angela, Mount King in the distance. Western summit39°19’31.30″N, 120°19’29.30″WCA
116Camp near Summit Tunnel, Mount King in the distance39°18’53.70″N, 120°19’15.30″WCA
117Bluffs in Donner Pass Western Summit, 500 high. Altitude of Pass 7000 feet39°18’54.60″N, 120°19’18.90″WCA
118Summit Tunnel — eastern portal. Length 1,660 feet, on the western summit39°18’57″N, 120°19’19″WCA
119Laborers and rocks, near opening of Summit Tunnel39°18’57.50″N, 120°19’24″WCA
120Scene Near Summit Tunnel, Eastern slope of Western Summit39°19’1.10″N, 120°19’26″WCA
121Grant’s Peak and Palisade Rocks, from western summit39°18’57″N, 120°19’21″WCA
122Palisades Rocks, with road and teams descending western summit39°19’4″N, 120°19’14.60″WCA
123Lakeview Bluff, 350 feet high, from the Wagon Road39°19’3″N, 120°19’14″WCA
124Road and Rocks at foot of Crested Peak, Eastern slope of Western Summit39°19’1″N, 120°19’22″WCA
125Donner Lake from Summit. Lakeview Bluff on the Right39°18’58″N, 120°19’27″WCA
126Donner Lake and eastern summit, from top of Summit Tunnel, western summit39°18’59″N, 120°19’29″WCA
127Donner Lake, 110 miles from Sacramento. Eastern summits 25 miles distant39°19’6″N, 120°18’54″WCA
128Boating Party on Donner Lake, between Eastern and Western Summits39°19’15.57″N, 120°17’21.37″WCA
129Donner Lake, with Crested Peak and Mt. Lincoln in distance39°19’29″N, 120°16’58″WCA
130View on Donner Lake. Altitude 5,964 feet39°19’28″N, 120°17’7″WCA
131Donner Lake, with Pass in distance. Altitude above lake, 1,126 feet39°19’30″N, 120°17’3″WCA
132Donner Lake, Peak and Pass, from Wagon Road39°19’32″N, 120°16’11″WCA
133Stumps cut by Donner Party in 1846, Summit Valley39°19’20″N, 120°18’36″WCA
134Dry Creek Bridge, 17 miles from Sacramento38°44’4″N, 121°18’23″WCA
135Locomotive on Trestle, near American River38°35’28.60″N, 121°27’0.20″WCA
136Train and curve, Jenny Lind Flat38°52’8″N, 121° 9’22″WCA
137Bound for the Mountains, 12 mile Tangent. 4 miles from Sacramento38°36’23″N, 121°26’25″WCA
138Freight Depot at New Castle, Placer County. 31 miles from Sacramento38°52’31.60″N, 121°8’5″WCA
139Locomotive, on Turntable38°52’33″N, 121°8’2″WCA
140Rocklin Granite Quarry, 22 miles from Sacramento38°47’21″N, 121°14’13″WCA
141Tangent below Pino, 22 miles from Sacramento38°48’24″N, 121°12’57″WCA
142Antelope Ridge, near New Castle, 30 miles from Sacramento38°52’12″N, 121°9’21.50″WCA
143Griffith’s, Granite Station38°51’4″N, 121°10’12″WCA
144American River Bridge, 400 feet long38°35’26″N, 121°26’55″WCA
145Building Trestle at New Castle, Placer County38°52’29.50″N, 121°7’55″WCA
146Train on Embankment above Pino, with Hand-Car near38°50’10″N, 121°11’6″WCA
147Train at Griffith’s Station, Placer County38°51’2″N, 121°10’15″WCA
148View of American River Bridge, near view. 3 miles from Sacramento38°35’27″N, 121°26’57″WCA
149Colfax, looking west. Illinoistown in distance39°6’22″N, 120°57’12.70″WCA
150Colfax, looking East, Cape Horn 4 miles, and Giant’s Gap 20 miles distant39°5’58″N, 120°57’33″WCA
151Cape Horn, from ravine below39°6’27.70″N, 120°56’11.60″WCA
152View on the American River, below Cape Horn39°5’56″N, 120°55’26″WCA
153Hog’s Back Cut, 60 feet deep. 2 miles from Alta39°11’51″N, 120°47’41″WCA
154American River, from Green Bluffs39°11’46″N, 120°46’49″WCA
155View of the Forks of the American River, 3 miles above Alta39°11’58″N, 120°45’50″WCA
156Prospect Hill Cut. 150 feet deep, 74 feet wide39°14’15″N, 120°44’26.60″WCA
157Railroad West from Fort Point, 76 miles39°14’31.20″N, 120°43’52.20″WCA
158Across Blue Canyon, looking East39°15’23.80″N, 120°42’51.50″WCA
159Blue Canyon Embankment, 75 feet high39°15’25.70″N, 120°42’47″WCA
160Blue Canyon. 79 miles from Sacramento39°15’12″N, 120°42’39″WCA
161Across Blue Canyon, looking West39°15’12″N, 120°42’39″WCA
162Lost Camp Spur Cut, 80 miles from Sacramento39°14’52″N, 120°42’39″WCA
163Frame for snow covering, interior view39°18’6″N, 120°39’50″WCA
164Emigrant Gap, Snow Plow and Turntable39°17’47″N, 120°40’23.50″WCA
165Emigrant Gap, West from Tunnel39°18’9.70″N, 120°39’44.70″WCA
166Emigrant Gap Tunnel, Wall and Snow Covering39°18’6.80″N, 120°39’52.20″WCA
167Emigrant Gap, looking East, Yuba Mountains in distance39°18’12″N, 120°39’44.50″WCA
168Bear Valley, 85 miles from Sacramento39°18’16″N, 120°39’36″WCA
169Valley North Fork of Yuba, above Emigrant Gap. Old Man Mountain39°19’44.7″N, 120°35’21″WCA
170Cement Ridge, Old Man Mountain in dist.39°19’7.60″N, 120°37’29.40″WCA
171Miller’s Bluffs, near Crystal Lake. Old Man Mountain in distance39°19’30.30″N, 120°35’44.20″WCA
172Echo Point, opposite Crystal Lake, looking west39°19’32″N, 120°34’28″WCA
173Echo Point and Rattlesnake Mountains39°19’33.50″N, 120°34’36.40″WCA
174Railroad, below Cisco and Crystal Lake39°18’50″N, 120°33’22″WCA
175Foot of Black Butte, above Crystal Lake39°18’43.20″N, 120°33’30″WCA
176Black Butte, 91 miles from Sacramento39°18’56″N, 120°33’36″WCA
177Crystal Lake and Railroad, from Black Butte39°18’39″N, 120°33’44″WCA
178South Yuba Valley and summit, from Black Butte39°18’32″N, 120°33’44″WCA
179Old Man Mountain. Near Meadow Lake, altitude 7,50039°22’48″N, 120°31’31″WCA
180Meadow Lake, 6,800 elevation; Knickerbocker Hill and Old Man Mountain39°24’48″N, 120°29’59″WCA
181North Fork of South Yuba, near Meadow Lake39°19’33.20″N, 120°32’13.40″WCA
182“Oneonta, ” at Cisco39°18’8.50″N, 120°32’59.60″WCA
183Main Street, Upper Cisco, 5911 feet elevation39°18’9″N, 120°32’51″WCA
184Upper Cisco, Rattlesnake and Yuba Mountains39°17’59″N, 120°32’46″WCA
185Depots at Cisco, Altitude 5900 feet39°18’14″N, 120°33’3″WCA
186South Yuba, below Cisco39°19’36.50″N, 120°34’9.50″WCA
187Summits of Sierras, 8,000 to 10,000 feet alt.39°17’50″N, 120°18’59″WCA
188Castle Peak, a western summit, 10,000 feet altitude (same place with 111)39°19’15″N, 120°22’43″WCA
189Summit of Castle Peak, 10,000 feet altitude39°21’58″N, 120°21’9″WCA
190Summit of Castle Peak, from the northwest39°22’0″N, 120°21’9″WCA
191Summit Valley, from Emigrant Mount. Alt. 8,200 feet, looking toward Cisco39°18’15″N, 120°19’4″WCA
192Anderson Valley and Devil’s Peak, from Emigrant Mountain, Western Summit39°18’15″N, 120°19’4″WCA
193Summit Station, Western Summit39°19’0.40″N, 120°19’45.80″WCA
194Lakes in Anderson Valley, from Lava Bluff39°18’54″N, 120°19’50″WCA
195American Peak, in spring39°18’44″N, 120°19’53″WCA
196Shaft house over Summit Tunnel, American Peak in distance39°19’2″N, 120°19’36″WCA
197Summit tunnel, before completion. Western summit, altitude 7,042 feet39°18’59.95″N, 120°19’46.50″WCA
198East portal of summit tunnel. Western summit. Length 1,660 feet39°18’57.50″N, 120°19’24″WCA
199East portal of Summit Tunnel, and Wagon Road from Tunnel No. 739°18’57.50″N, 120°19’19″WCA
200Bluff and snow bank in Donner Pass. Western summit, altitude 1,092 feet39°18’57.50″N, 120°19’19″WCA
201Melting of a snow bank. Scene on the summits in August39°18’54″N, 120°19’19″WCA
202East portal of Tunnels No. 6 and 7, from Tunnel No.839°18’55″N, 120°19’6″WCA
203Donner Lake, Tunnels No. 7 and 8 from Summit Tunnel, eastern summit in distance39°18’57.80″N, 120°19’25.80″WCA
204Heading of east portal Tunnel No.839°18’55.70″N, 120°19’2″WCA
205Railroad on Pollard’s Hill, 1,100 feet above Donner Lake39°19’31″N, 120°17’1″WCA
206Coldstream Valley, from Tunnel No. 1339°18’36″N, 120°14’54″WCA
207Coldstream, eastern slope of western summit39°18’9″N, 120°15’1″WCA
208Coldstream Valley, Western Summits of Sierras (not available at Stanford)39°17’50″N, 120°15’22″WCA
209View from Crested Peak, 8,500 ft alt. Donner Lake 1,500 ft below. Railroad 1,000 ft below39°18’30″N, 120°18’39″WCA
210Loaded Teams, from Cisco39°18’40.50″N, 120°33’3.80″WCA
211West Portal Tunnel No.1, Grizzly Hill39°14’44″N, 120°43’28″WCA
212North Fork Yuba River between Cisco and Meadow Lake39°19’46.60″N, 120°31’55.60″WCA
213Snow Covering, below Cisco39°18’42.40″N, 120°33’26.80″CA
214Emigrant Gap Ridge. 84 miles. Old Man Mt., Red Mt., Castle Peak in Distance39°17’51″N, 120°40’30″WCA
215Bear Valley and Yuba Canyon, from Emigrant Gap39°17’55″N, 120°40’26″WCA
216View at Shady Run, 73 miles from Sacramento39°13’10″N, 120°45’32″WCA
217All Aboard for Virginia City, Wells, Fargo & Co.’s Express (and the Overland Mail)39°18’5.70″N, 120°32’47.10″WCA
218Tunnel No. 3, above Cisco39°18’11″N, 120°32’27″WCA
219View Above Cisco, looking toward the Summit (not available at Stanford)39°18’7.30″N, 120°32’15.40″WCA
220Scene on the Truckee River, near Donner Lake39°18’36″N, 120°12’17.50″WCA
221Truckee River below Truckee Station, looking west toward Donner Lake39°19’59.60″N, 120°9’47″WCA
222Truckee River, below Truckee Station. Looking toward Eastern Summit39°19’58″N, 120°9’55″WCA
223Truckee River, approaching the eastern summits39°19’59″N, 120°9’45″WCA
224First Crossing of the Truckee River. 133 miles from Sacramento39°22’19″N, 120°1’56″WCA
225Bridge over First Crossing Truckee river. 204 feet long39°22’21.60″N, 120°1’55.10″WCA
226Interior of Bridge over First Crossing of the Truckee River39°22’22″N, 120°1’54″WCA
227Profile Rock, near the first crossing of the Truckee River39°22’8.30″N, 120°2’28.30″WCA
228Truckee River entering the Eastern Summits. Tunnel No.14. 134 miles39°22’43″N, 120°1’11.50″WCA
229American River Bridge. Railroad around Cape Horn, 1,400 feet above39°5’56″N, 120°55’26″WCA
230View on the American River, below Cape Horn39°5’59.80″N, 120°55’29″WCA
231Bloomer Cut, near Auburn. 800 feet long and 63 feet high38°52’40″N, 121°5’10.20″WCA
232Capitol Granite Quarry at Rocklin, 22 miles from Sacramento38°47’19″N, 121°14’7″WCA
233Cutting Granite at Rocklin, 22 miles from Sacramento38°47’22″N, 121°14’10″WCA
234Railroad Wharves, at Sacramento City38°34’57″N, 121°30’23″WCA
235Loco. Sargent, J St, Sacramento City, from the Levee38°35’1″N, 121°30’22″WCA
236Cathedral Rocks, Truckee River39°22’22.70″N, 120°1’45″WCA
237Crested Peak, from Grant’s Butte39°19’8.50″N, 120°19’26″WCA
238Cloud view, Donner Lake39°19’21″N, 120°17’23″WCA
239Snow plow, at Cisco39°18’6″N, 120°32’52″WCA
240Engine House and Train. Rocklin, 22 miles from Sacramento38°47’26″N, 121°14’17″WCA
241Engine House and Turntable. Rocklin, 22 miles from Sacramento38°47’30″N, 121°14’13″WCA
242West of Clipper Gap, Placer County38°57’47.60″N, 121°0’41″WCA
243Clipper Gap, 43 miles from Sacramento38°57’46″N, 121°0’32″WCA
244Cut near New England Mills, 49 miles from Sacramento39°2’16″N, 120°58’28″WCA
245Railroad around Cape Horn, from the canyon39°6’19″N, 120°55’46.70″WCA
246Constructing snow cover. Scene near the summit39°18’59.40″N, 120°19’53.90″WCA
247Frame of snow covering, 90 miles from Sacramento39°19’33″N, 120°34’26.60″WCA
248Lower Cascade, near Long Side Track39°18’26.40″N, 120°26’42.60″WCA
249Lower Cascade Bridge. Above Cisco39°18’30″N, 120°26’44.70″WCA
250Upper Cascade. 98 miles from Sacramento39°18’44″N, 120°26’4.60″WCA
251Upper Cascade Bridge. Above Cisco39°18’44.50″N, 120°26’6.10″WCA
252Snow gallery around Crested Peak. Timbers 12×14 inches, 20 inches apart39°18’49.50″N, 120°18’51.60″WCA
253Crested Peak, from railroad. Roof of snow gallery (not available at Stanford)39°18’53.60″N, 120°18’56″WCA
254Inside view of snow gallery at summit. Bolting the frame to the rocks39°18’52″N, 120°18’55″WCA
255From Tunnel No. 10, looking west. Building wall across the ravine39°18’38″N, 120°18’22″WCA
256Crested Peak and Tunnel No. 10. Eastern slope of western summit39°18’42.50″N, 120°18’11″WCA
257Tunnel No. 12, Strong’s Canyon39°18’43″N, 120°17’44″WCA
258Castle Peak from railroad, above Donner Lake39°18’46″N, 120°18’5″WCA
259Coldstream Valley. East of Donner Lake39°18’52″N, 120°14’33″WCA
260Mist rising from Donner Lake. Early Morning View39°19’26″N, 120°14’18″WCA
261Railroad around Crested Peak. View from foot of Donner Lake39°19’26.70″N, 120°14’19.30″WCA
262Depot at Truckee. 119 miles from Sacramento39°19’33.80″N, 120°11’21.30″WCA
263Scene at Truckee. Nevada County39°19’34″N, 120°11’21″WCA
264Truckee River, at Truckee Station. 15 miles from Lake Tahoe39°19’33.30″N, 120°11’9.50″WCA
265Boca. Crossing of Little Truckee39°23’4.70″N, 120°5’44.40″WCA
266View of Truckee River. Near Camp 2439°24’44.40″N, 120°1’34″WCA
267View near the state line. Truckee River39°25’56″N, 120°1’34″WCA
268Boundary Peak and Tunnel No.15. 137 miles from Sacramento39°26’9″N, 120°1’17.40″WCA
269Tunnel No. 15. Looking east, toward Nevada39°26’15.30″N, 120°1’12.60″WCA
270Tunnel No. 15. Near Camp 2439°26’20″N, 120°1’5.50″WCA
271Bridge near state line, 138 miles from Sacramento39°26’23″N, 120°0’56″WCA
272Second crossing of Truckee River. Near Camp 2439°26’33.40″N, 120°0’42.50″WCA
273Bridge at Eagle Gap, Truckee River39°29’5.50″N,119°59’29.20″WNV
274Bridge over Truckee River. Eagle Gap39°28’52.20″N,119°59’35.70″WNV
275aEagle Gap. Truckee River39°27’12.50″N, 120°0’26.60″WCA
275bEagle Gap. Truckee River39°27’16.20″N, 120°0’28″W 
276View near Verdi. Truckee River39°28’58.80″N, 119°59’29.30″WNV
277Looking toward Verdi. Truckee River, 140 miles from Sacramento39°29’7″N, 119°59’29.30″WNV
278Bridge below Verdi. Truckee River39°31’6.50″N, 119°57’32.70″WNV
279Fourth crossing of Truckee River. 147 miles from Sacramento39°31’16″N, 119°57’37.60″WNV
280Granite quarry, near Reno39°30’36″N,119°54’18″WNV
281Reno and Washoe Range in distance. From Base of Sierra Nevada Mountains39°31’19.30″N,119°50’30.70″WNV
282Piute Squaws and Children39°31’22″N,119°49’49″WNV
283Piute Indians39°31’22″N,119°49’49″WNV
284Freight Depots at Reno, 154 miles from Sacramento39°31’53″N, 119°48’3″WNV
285Scene at Depot, at Reno39°31’51.80″N,119°47’58″WNV
286Virginia Street, from the Bridge. Reno39°31’31″N,119°48’45.80″WNV
287Entering Lower Canyon of Truckee River39°31’32″N, 119°41’57″WCA
288Looking across Truckee Meadows, toward Sierra Nevada Mountains, near Camp 3739°31’25.10″N, 119°41’27.50″WCA
289Truckee Meadows. Sierra Nevada Mountains 20 miles distant39°31’49″N, 119°42’1″WCA
290Truckee Meadows, from Camp 37, 162 miles from Sacramento39°31’30.50″N, 119°41’43″WCA
291Scene near Camp 37. Lower canyon of Truckee39°31’30″N, 119°41’57.30″WCA
292Below Camp 37, lower canyon of Truckee39°31’23.30″N, 119°41’34.80″WCA
293Crossing of Wagon Road. Lower Canyon of Truckee39°31’11.30″N, 119°41’9.30″WCA
294Cottonwood Valley. Lower canyon of Truckee39°30’48″N, 119°38’46.60″WCA
295Scene on the bank of Truckee River, lower canyon of Truckee39°30’44.30″N, 119°38’42″WCA
296Basaltic Rocks, Lower Canyon of Truckee39°30’48.50″N, 119°38’15.30″WCA
297View from Basaltic Rocks. Looking East39°34’1″N, 119°28°50″WCA
298Limestone Point, Lower Canyon of Truckee39°31’47″N, 119°36’39″WCA
299Truckee River and R.R. at Lime Point. Sierra Nevada Mountains 35 miles distant39°32’57″N, 119°34’45.50″WCA
300Pleasant Valley. Lower canyon of Truckee39°34’24″N, 119°28’23″WNV
301Pleasant Valley, looking west. Lower canyon of Truckee River39°35’13″N, 119°27’56″WNV
302Pleasant Valley, looking east. Lower Canyon of Truckee River39°35’1″N, 119°28’14″WNV
303Red Bluffs, looking from the west. Lower canyon of Truckee River39°35’33″N, 119°27’31″WNV
304Looking west from Red Bluffs. Lower canyon of Truckee River39°35’33″N, 119°27’14″WNV
305Red Bluffs, lower canyon of Truckee. 178 miles from Sacramento39°35’31.60″N, 119°27’32.20″WNV
306Truckee River, near Wadsworth. Lower canyon of Truckee39°35’26.70″N, 119°24’31.30″WNV
307The Goliah, at Wadsworth, Big Bend of Truckee River39°38’2.90″N, 119°17’9.30″WNV
308Wadsworth, Big Bend of Truckee River. Washoe Range in distance39°37’57.40″N, 119°17’0.20″WNV
309Turntable at Wadsworth, 188 miles from Sacramento39°37’59″N, 119°17’7.60″WNV
310Construction train, on Alkali desert, near Humboldt Lake40°5’23″N, 118°35’27″WNV
311Construction train, on alkali desert40° 5’14″N, 118°35’34″WNV
312Alkali Flat. Construction Train in distance40°6’2.60″N, 118°34’41.40″WNV
313Chinese camp, Brown’s Station40°1’13″N, 118°40’18″WNV
314Brown’s Station, 234 miles from Sacramento40°1’4″N, 118°40’22″WNV
315Water train opposite Humboldt Lake40°1’15″N, 118°40’23″WNV
316End of track, near Humboldt Lake40°5’59″N, 118°33’59″WNV
317End of track, on Humboldt Plains40°5’33″N, 118°35’19″WNV
318Lower crossing Humboldt River, 254 miles from Sacramento40°13’27″N, 118°25’40″WNV
319Winnemucca Depot. 334 miles from Sacramento40°58’9.70″N, 117°43’54″WNV
320Winnemucca town and peak. 334 miles from Sacramento. Scenes on the Humboldt River40°58’32″N, 117°44’18″WNV
321Advance of civilization. End of track, near Iron Point40°53’4.40″N, 117°15’48″WNV
322Advance of civilization. Scene on the Humboldt Desert40°53’24″N, 117°16’8″WNV
323Shoshone Indians looking at Locomotive on Desert40°42’13″N, 117°0’53″WNV
324Shoshone Indians, Humboldt Plains40°42’13″N, 117°0’54″WNV
325Car of Sup’t of Construction. End of Track40°42’13″N, 117°0’55″WNV
326Argenta Station, at Skull Ranch, 395 miles from Sacramento40°39’46″N, 116°44’13″WNV
327Chinese camp. At end of track40°34’49″N, 116°18’34″WNV
328Powder Bluff. West end of 10 Mile Canyon40°34’37″N, 116°18’11.50″WNV
329Second Crossing of Humboldt River. 430 miles from Sacramento40°34’30″N, 116°17’49″WNV
330Commencement of a snow storm. Scene east of second crossing of Humboldt40°34’52″N, 116°16’60″WNV
331Sentinel Rock. Ten Mile Canyon40°34’52″N, 116°16’47″WNV
332Team Camp– evening view. End of track40°34’51.80″N, 116°16’25.40″WNV
333Curving Iron, Ten Mile Canyon40°34’47″N, 116°13’43″WNV
334Humboldt Gate, Ten Mile Canyon40°35’47″N, 116°12’47″WNV
335Building water tank. Trout Creek mountains in distance40°36’28.50″N, 116°12’13.20″WNV
336Entering the Palisades. Ten Mile Canyon40°37’14.60″N, 116°11’26.30″WNV
337The Palisades– Ten Mile Canyon. 435 miles from Sacramento40°37’10.40″N, 116°11’37″WNV
338First construction train passing the Palisades. 10 Mile Canyon40°37’22.80″N, 116°10’50.80″WNV
339Alcove in Palisades. 10 Mile Canyon40°37’25″N, 116°11’3″WNV
340Indian viewing railroad from top of Palisades. 435 miles from Sacramento40°37’25″N, 116°11’1″WNV
341View across river and canyon. From top of Palisades40°37’27″N, 116°11’26″WNV
342Shoshone Indians. 10 Mile Canyon40°36’50″N, 116°11’45″WNV
343Train at Argenta. 396 miles from Sacramento40°39’32″N, 116°45’2″WNV
344Machine Shops at Carlin. 445 miles from Sacramento40°42’47″N, 116°6’28″WNV
345Carlin from the Water Tank, looking West. 445 miles from Sacramento40°42’47.20″N, 116°6’28.30″WNV
346Depot at Elko. 468 miles from Sacramento40°49’48″N, 115°45’52.50″WNV
347Elko from the West. 468 miles from Sacramento40°49’42″N, 115°46’2″WNV
348Water Tank at Peko. 488 miles from Sacramento40°55’46″N, 115°30’19″WNV
349Scene near Deeth. Mount Halleck in distance41°9’22″N, 115°4’43″WNV
350Railroad Camp near Victory. 10 1/4 miles laid in one day41°35’14.20″N, 112°38’48.50″WUT
351Monument Point from the Lake. 669 miles from Sacramento41°42’14″N, 112°50’30″WUT
352Salt Lake from Monument Point. 669 miles from Sacramento41°42’13.50″N, 112°50’37.20″WUT
353Poetry and prose. Scene at Monument Point, north end of Salt Lake41°42’14.10″N, 112°50’36.80″WUT
354The First Greeting of the Iron Horse. Promontory Point, May 9th, 186941°37’7.201″N, 112°33’1.30″WUT
355The last rail. The invocation. Fixing the wire, May 10th, 186941°37’4″N, 112°33’5.40″WUT
356The Last Rail is Laid. Scene at Promontory Point, May 10th, 186941°37’4.60″N, 112°33’6″WUT
357The Rival Monarchs. Scene at Promontory Point, May 10th, 186941°37’5″N, 112°33’5.30″WUT
358The Monarch from the West. Scene at Promontory Point, May 10th, 186941°37’5″N, 112°33’7″WUT
359The Monarch from the East. Scene at Promontory Point, May 10th, 186941°37’5″N, 112°33’7″WUT
360The Last Act– 690 Miles from Sacramento. Scene at Promontory Point, May 10th, 186941°37’4″N, 112°33’8.40″WUT
361Looking West from Taylor’s Mills. Near Ogden41°14’23.70″N, 111°59’22.90″WUT
362Taylor’s Mills, Wahsatch Range. Near Ogden41°12’48.50″N, 111°56’44.70″WUT
363Ogden and Wahsatch Range. 742 Miles from Sacramento41°13’24″N, 111°58’59″WUT
364Railroad at Ogden, Wahsatch Range in distance41°13’29″N, 111°58’50″WUT