Direct Reference is a theory which explores the relationship between proper names, or *labels* and the objects to which they refer. According to John Stuart Mill, direct reference and proper names are “purely denotative....they denote the individuals who are called by them; but they do not indicate or imply any attributes as belonging to those individuals.” Hence we may refer to a philosopher named Aristotle without having any factual information regarding the person denoted by this label.
Indexicality is the use of expressions that elicit change of meaning in a sentence given the context of the utterance, or *indexicals*. An example of indexicality is the sentence 'I am thirsty'. As the speaker changes, the definition of the utterance 'I am thirsty' changes as well.
Propositional Attitudes are problematic structures within the theory of Direct Reference. We may make the statement, 'Dr. Seuss wrote the “Cat in the Hat”,' and interchange Theodor Geisel for Dr. Seuss without affecting the validity of the statement. However, when the propositional attitude 'John believes that' is applied to the statement, forming 'John believes that Dr. Seuss wrote the “Cat in the Hat”', the Substitution Principle does not produce a valid statement. The application of the propositional attitude does not allow the speaker to make assumptions about John's beliefs. Hence, the social understanding of the proper name, 'Dr. Seuss', is lost within the structure of the propositional attitude.
This volume is a compilation of revised versions of papers presented at a conference held in spring 1994 at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZiF) in Bielefeld, Germany. These papers are extended discussions of topics of great importance to philosophers.
Abstrakte Gegenstände-Semantik und Ontologie 1983) and of many articles in metaphysics, philosophy of mind and philosophy of language. is Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Logic at the University of Bonn. He is author of Kontext, Referenz und Bedeutung (1996) and co-author of Analytische Philosophie, Ein Einführung (1996). earned his Ph.D. in Philosophy at the University of Hamburg. He is author of Zuschreibungen propositionaler Einstellungen (1997).
holds a Chair of Philosophy at the University of Hamburg. He has been Visiting Professor at the Universities of Fribourg, Oslo and Venice. He is the author of
- Part I Indexicals and Names
- 1 Reflexivity, Indexicality, and Names
- 2 Tensed Thoughts
- 3 First Person Propositions: A Fregean Account
- 4 First-Person Referenece, Representational Independence, and Self-Knowledge
- 5 The Logic of Indexical Thoughts and the Metaphysics of the ‘Self’
- 6 The Addressing Puzzle
- 7 The Mechanics of the Counterpart Relation
- 8 Names, Indexicals, and Identity Statements
- Part II Attitude Reports
- 9 Frege's Puzzle and Belief Ascriptions
- 10 Descriptions, Indexicals, and Belief Reports: Some Dilemmas (But Not the Ones You Expect)
- 11 Variations of Sin N
- 12 Would you Believe it? On the Anaphoric Specification of Attitude Content
- 13 Belief Reports and Speech Reports
- Part III Natural Kind of Terms and Color Terms
- 14 The Context Dependency of Natural Kind Terms
- 15 The Character of Color Terms: A Materialist View
- 16 The Character of Color Terms: A Phenomenalist View
- Name Index
- Subject Index