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Collaborative Language Engineering cover

Collaborative Language Engineering

A Case Study in Efficient Grammar-Based Processing

edited by Stephan Oepen, Dan Flickinger, Jun-ichi Tsujii, and Hans Uszkoreit

Following high hopes and subsequent disillusionment in the late 1980s, the past decade of work in language engineering has seen a dramatic increase in the power and sophistication of statistical approaches to natural language processing, along with a growing recognition that these methods alone cannot meet the full range of demands for applications of NLP. While statistical methods, often described as 'shallow' processing techniques, can bring real advantages in robustness and efficiency, they do not provide the precise, reliable representations of meaning which more conventional symbolic grammars can supply for natural language. A consistent, fine-grained mapping between form and meaning is of critical importance in some NLP applications, including machine translation, speech prosthesis, and automated email response. Recent advances in grammar development and processing implementations offer hope of meeting these demands for precision.

This volume provides an update on the state of the art in the development and application of broad-coverage declarative grammars built on sound linguistic foundations—the 'deep' processing paradigm—and presents several aspects of an international research effort to produce comprehensive, re-usable grammars and efficient technology for parsing and generating with such grammars.

Stephan Oepan and Dan Flickinger are senior researchers at CSLI Stanford. Jun-ichi Tsujii is professor at the Department of Computer Science at the University of Tokyo. Hans Uszkoreit is professor in computational linguistics at Saarland University and Scientific Director at the German National Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).


  • Contributors vii
  • Preface xiii
    Stephan Oepen, Dan Flickinger, Hans Uszkoreit, and Jun-ichi Tsujii
  • 1 On Building a More Efficient Grammar by Exploiting Types 1
    Dan Flickinger
  • 2 Native-Code Compilation of Feature Structures 19
    Takaki Makino, Yusuke Miyao, Kentaro Torisawa, and Jun-ichi Tsujii
  • 3 A Context-Free Approximation of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar 49
    Bernd Kiefer and Hans-Ulrich Krieger
  • 4 CFG Filtering and Parsing Strategies 81
    Kentaro Torisawa, Kenji Nishida, Yusuke Miyao, and Jun-ichi Tsujii
  • 5 Efficient Feature Structure Operations Without Compilation 105
    Rob Malouf, John Carroll, and Ann Copestake
  • 6 Pre-processing and Encoding Techniques in PET 127
    Ulrich Callmeier
  • 7 Efficient and Thread-Safe Unification with LinGO 145
    Marcel P. van Lohuizen
  • 8 LIGHT AM—Another Abstract Machine for FS Unification 167
    Liviu Ciortuz
  • 9 Efficient Parsing for Unification-Based Grammars 195
    Stephan Oepen and John Carroll
  • A Definitions of Typed Feature Structures 227
    Ann Copestake
  • Author Index 231
  • Subject Index 235


ISBN (Paperback): 1575862905 (9781575862903)
ISBN (Cloth): 1575862891 (9781575862897)
ISBN (Electronic): 1575869187 (9781575869186)

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