Herbert H. Clark

Albert Ray Lang Professor of Psychology,  Stanford University

1960s

Clark, H. H. (1966). The prediction of recall patterns in simple active sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5, 99-106. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1968). On the use and meaning of prepositions. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 421-431. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1969). Linguistic processes in deductive reasoning. Psychological Review, 76, 387-404. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1969). The influence of language in solving three-term series problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 82, 205-215. PDF

Clark, H. H. & Stafford, R. A. (1969). Memory for semantic features in the verb. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80, 326-334. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Begun, J. S. (1968). The use of syntax in understanding sentences. British Journal of Psychology, 59, 219-229. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Card, S. K. (1969). The role of semantics in remembering comparative sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 82, 545-553. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Clark, E. V. (1968). Semantic distinctions and memory for complex sentences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20, 129-138. PDF

Dedrick, K. G. & Clark, H. H. (1960) Photoneutron yields from excitation of the giant resonance. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Memorandum 225. Stanford CA. PDF

Dedrick, K. G. & Clark, H. H. (1962) Elementary calculation of the transverse shielding. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Memorandum 296. Stanford CA. PDF



1970s

Banks, W. P., Clark, H. H., & Lucy, P. (1975). On the locus of the semantic congruity effect on comparative judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 104, 35-47. PDF

Chase, W. G., & Clark, H. H. (1971). Semantics in the perception of verticality. British Journal of Psychology, 62, 211-216. PDF

Chase, W. G., & Clark, H. H. (1972). Mental operations in the comparison of sentences and pictures. In L. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in learning and memory (pp. 205-232). New York: Wiley. PDF

Clark H. H., & Haviland, S. E. (1974). Psychological processes in linguistic explanation. In D. Cohen (Ed.), Explaining linguistic phenomena. Washington: Hemisphere Publication Corporation. PDF

Clark, E. V., & Clark, H. H. (1979). When nouns surface as verbs. Language, 55, 767-811. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1970) Comprehending comparatives. In G. B. Flores d'Arcais & W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.), Advances in psycholinguistics (pp. 294-306). Amsterdam: North Holland Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1970). The primitive nature of children's relational concepts. In J.R. Hayes (Ed.), Cognition and the development of language (pp. 269-278). New York: Wiley. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1970). Word associations and linguistic theory. In J. Lyons (Ed.), New horizons in linguistics (pp. 271-286). Baltimore: Penguin. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1971). More about "adjectives, comparatives, and syllogisms": A reply to Huttenlocher and Higgins. Psychological Review, 78, 505-514. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1971). The importance of linguistics for the study of speech hesitations. In D. L. Horton & J. J. Jenkins (Eds.), The perception of language (pp. 69-78). Columbus: Charles Merrill. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1972). Difficulties people have in answering the question "Where is it?". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 265-277. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1972). On the evidence concerning Huttenlocher and Higgins' theory of reasoning: A second reply. Psychological Review, 79, 428-432.

Clark, H. H. (1973). Space, time, semantics, and the child. In T. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive development and the acquisition of language (27-63). New York: Academic Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1973). The language-as-fixed-effect fallacy: A critique of language statistics in psychological research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 335-359. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1974). Semantics and comprehension. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics: Linguistics and adjacent arts and sciences (Vol. l2) (pp. 1291-1428). The Hague: Mouton. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1974). The chronometric study of meaning components. In Problems actuels en psycholinguistique (pp. 489-505). Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1975). Bridging. In R. C. Schank & B. L. Nash-Webber (Eds.), Theoretical issues in natural language processing. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1976). Semantics and comprehension. The Hague: Mouton. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1977). Inferences in comprehension. In D. LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Basic processes in reading: Perception and comprehension (pp. 243-263). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1978). Inferring what is meant. In W. J. M. Levelt & G. B. Flores d'Arcais (Eds.), Studies in the perception of language (pp. 295-321). London: Wiley. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1979). Preface. In L. G. M. Noordman, Inferring from language. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

Clark, H. H. (1979). Responding to indirect speech acts. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 430-477. PDF

Clark, H. H. & Lucy, P. (1975). Understanding what is meant from what is said: A study in conversationally conveyed requests. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 56-72. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Begun, J. S. (1971). The semantics of sentence subjects. Language and Speech, 14, 34-46. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Brownell, H. H. (1975). Judging up and down. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 339-352. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Brownell, H. H. (1976). Position, direction, and their perceptual integrality. Perception and Psychophysics, 19, 328-334. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Chase, W. G. (1972). On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 472-517. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Chase, W. G. (1974). Perceptual coding strategies in the formation and verification of descriptions. Memory and Cognition, 2, 101-111. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Clark, E. V. (1977). Psychology and language: An introduction to psycholinguistics. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Clark, H. H., & Clark, E. V. (1978). Universals, relativity and language processing. In J. H. Greenberg (Ed.), Universals of language: Method and theory (Vol. l) (pp. 225-278). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Haviland, S. E. (1977). Comprehension and the given-new contract. In R. O. Freedle (Ed.), Discourse production and comprehension (pp. 1-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Marshall, C. R. (1978). Reference diaries (pp. 57-63). In D. L. Waltz (Ed.), Theoretical issues in natural language processing (Vol. 2). New York: Association for Computing Machinery. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Sengul, C. J. (1979). In search of referents for nouns and pronouns. Memory and Cognition, 7, 35-41. PDF

Clark, H. H., Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (1973). On the meeting of semantics and perception. In W.G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 311-381). New York: Academic Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., Cohen, J., Smith, J. E. K., & Keppel, G. (1976). Discussion of Wike and Church's comments. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 15, 257-266. PDF

Haviland, S. E., & Clark, H. H. (1974). What's new? Acquiring new information as a process in comprehension. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 512- 521.  PDF

Hayes, J. R., & Clark, H. H. (1970). Experiments on the segmentation of an artificial speech analogue. In J. R. Hayes (Ed.), Cognition and the development of language (pp. 221-234). New York: Wiley. PDF

Just, M. A., & Clark, H. H. (1973). Drawing inferences from the presuppositions and implications of affirmative and negative sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 21-31. PDF

Olson, G. M., & Clark, H. H. (1976). Research methods in psycholinguistics. In E.C. Carterette & M.P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception: Language and speech (Vol. 7) (pp. 25-74). New York: Academic Press. PDF

Springston, F. J., & Clark, H. H. (1973). And and or, or the comprehension of pseudoimperatives. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 258-272. PDF



1980s

Clark, E. V., & Clark, H. H. (1984). Review of Speech, place, and action: Studies in deixis and related topics, edited by Robert J. Jarvella & Wolfgang Klein. Applied Psycholinguistics 5, 182-184.

Clark, H. H. (1982). The relevance of common ground: Comments on Sperber and Wilson. In N. V. Smith (Ed.), Mutual knowledge (pp. 124-127). New York: Academic Press.

Clark, H. H. (1983). Making sense of nonce sense. In G. B. Flores d'Arcais & R. J. Jarvella (Eds.), The process of language understanding (pp. 297-331). London: Wiley. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1985). Language use and language users. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (3rd ed., pp. 179-231). New York: Harper and Row.

Clark, H. H. (1986). Is philosophy of language empirical? Mind and Language, 1, 15-17.

Clark, H. H. (1986). What is said to whom: A rejoinder to Allan. Language, 62, 518-529.

Clark, H. H. (1987). Four dimensions of language use. In J. Verschueren & M. Bertuccelli-Papi (Eds.), The pragmatic perspective (pp. 9-25). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Clark, H. H. (1987). Relevance to what? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 714-715.

Clark, H. H. & French, J. W. (1981). Telephone goodbyes. Language in Society, 10, 1-19. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Carlson, T. B. (1981). Context for comprehension. In J. Long & A. Baddeley (Eds.), Attention and performance IX (pp. 313-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Carlson, T. B. (1982). Critics' beliefs about hearers' beliefs: A rejoinder to Johnson-Laird, Sperber, and Wilks. In N. V. Smith (Ed.), Mutual Knowledge (pp. 52-59). New York: Academic Press.

Clark, H. H., & Carlson, T. B. (1982). Hearers and speech acts. Language, 58, 332-373. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Carlson, T. B. (1982). Speech acts and hearers' beliefs. In N. V. Smith (Ed.), Mutual knowledge (pp. 1-36). New York: Academic Press.

Clark, H. H., & Gerrig, R. J. (1983). Understanding old words with new meanings. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 591-608. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Gerrig, R. J. (1984). On the pretense theory of irony. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 121-126. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Malt, B. C. (1984). Psychological constraints on language: A commentary on Bresnan and Kaplan and on Givon. In W. Kintsch, J. R. Miller, and P. Polson (Eds.), Method and tactics in cognitive science (pp. 191-214). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Marshall, C. R. (1981). Definite reference and mutual knowledge. In A. K. Joshi, B. Webber, & I. Sag (Eds.), Elements of discourse understanding (pp. 10-63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Murphy, G. L. (1982). La visée vers 'auditoire dans la signification et le référence. Bulletin de Psychologie, 35, 767-776. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Murphy, G. L. (1983). Audience design in meaning and reference. In J. F. LeNy and W. Kintsch (Eds.), Language and comprehension (pp. 287-299). Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. (1987). Collaborating on contributions to conversation. Language and Cognitive Processes, 2, 19-41. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. (1987). Concealing one's meaning from overhearers. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 209-225. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. (1989). Contributing to discourse. Cognitive Science, 13, 259-294. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schunk, D. H. (1980). Polite responses to polite requests. Cognition, 8, 111-143. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Politeness in requests: A rejoinder to Kemper and Thissen. Cognition, 9, 311-315.

Clark, H. H., & Wilkes-Gibbs, D. (1986). Referring as a collaborative process. Cognition, 22, 1-39. PDF

Clark, H. H., Schreuder, R., & Buttrick, S. (1983). Common ground and the understanding of demonstrative reference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 245- 258. PDF

Francik, E. P., & Clark, H. H. (1985). How to make requests that overcome obstacles to compliance. Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 560-568. PDF

Isaacs, E. A., & Clark, H. H. (1987). References in conversations between experts and novices. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 26-37. PDF

Morrow, D. G., & Clark, H. H. (1988). Interpreting words in spatial descriptions. Language and Cognitive Processes, 3, 275-292. PDF

Schober, M. F., & Clark, H. H. (1989). Understanding by addressees and overhearers. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 211-232. PDF



1990s

Brennan, S. E. & Clark, H. H. (1996) Conceptual pacts and lexical choice in conversation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1482-1493. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1990). Commentary on Mosteller and Youtz "Quantifying probabilistic expressions." Statistical Science, 5, 2-34. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1990). Language production. In W. Bright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of linguistics (pgs. 278-281). Oxford: Oxford University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1991). Pragmatics of language. In M. W. Eysenck (Ed.) The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology (pgs. 197-198). Oxford: Blackwell. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1991). Words, the world, and their possibilities. In G. Lockhead & J. Pomerantz (Eds.) The perception of structure (263-277). Washington, DC: APA. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1992). Arenas of language use. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Clark, H. H. (1994). Managing problems in speaking. Speech Communication, 15, 243-250. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1994). Discourse in production. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics. San Diego: Academic Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1994). Managing problems in speaking. Speech Communication, 15, 243-250. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1996). Communities, commonalities, and communication. In J. Gumperz and S. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 324-355). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1996). From comprehension to understanding. In W. J. M. Levelt (Ed.), Advanced psycholinguistics: A Bressanone retrospective for Giovanni B. Flores d'Arcais. Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clark, H. H. (1997). Dogmas of understanding. Discourse Processes, 23, 567-598. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1998). Communal lexicons. In K. Malmkjær & J. Williams (Eds.), Context in language learning and language understanding (pp. 63-87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1998). Psycholinguistics. MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. MIT Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1999). Conversation. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology. Washington DC: American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1999). How do real people communicate with virtual partners? Proceedings of 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium, Psychological Models of Communication in Collaborative Systems, November 5-7th, 1999, North Falmouth, MA. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1999). On the origins of conversation. Verbum, 21, 147-161. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1999). Passing time in conversation. Proceedings of the workshop on the structure of spoken and written texts, January 29-31, University of Texas, Austin. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1999). Psycholinguistics. MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. MIT Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Bly, B. (1995). Pragmatics and discourse. In J. L. Miller & P. D. Eimas (Eds.), Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Vol 11: Speech, language, and communication. New York: Academic Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Gerrig, R. J. (1990). Quotations as demonstrations. Language, 66, 764-805. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Wasow, T. (1998). Repeating words in spontaneous speech. Cognitive Psychology, 37, 201-242. PDF

Clark, H. H., and Brennan, S. A. (1991). Grounding in communication. In L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine, & S.D. Teasley (Eds.). Perspectives on socially shared cognition. Washington: APA Books. PDF

Clark, H. H., and Schaefer, E. F. (1992). Dealing with overhearers. In H. H. Clark, Arenas of language use. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., and Schober, M. F. (1992). Asking questions and influencing answers. In J. M. Tanur (Ed.). Questions about questions: Inquiries into the cognitive bases of surveys. New York: Russell Sage. PDF

Fox Tree, J. E., & Clark, H. H. (1997). Pronouncing "the" as "thee" to signal problems in speaking. Cognition, 62, 151-167. PDF

Isaacs, E. A., & Clark, H. H. (1990). Ostensible invitations. Language in Society, 19, 493-509. PDF

Morrow, D. G., Clark, H. H., Lee, A. T., & Rodvold, M. (1990). Collaboration in communication between pilots and air-traffic-controllers. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28(6), 494-494. PDF

Smith, V. L., & Clark, H. H. (1993). On the course of answering questions. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 25-38. PDF

Tversky, B. and Clark, H. H. (1993). Prepositions aren't places. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 16:2, 252-253. PDF

Wade, E., & Clark, H. H. (1993). Reproduction and demonstration in quotations. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 805-819. PDF

Whittaker, S. J., Brennan, S. E., and Clark, H. H. (1991). Coordinating activity: An analysis of interaction in computer-supported cooperative work. Proceedings, CHI'91, Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press. PDF

Wilkes-Gibbs, D., & Clark, H. H. (1992). Coordinating beliefs in conversation. Journal of Memory and Cognition, 31, 183-194. PDF



2000s

Bangerter, A., & Clark, H. H. (2003) Navigating joint projects with dialogue. Cognitive Science, 27, 195-225. PDF

Bangerter, A., Clark, H. H., & Katz, A. R. (2004). Navigating joint projects in telephone conversations. Discourse Processes, 37, 1-23. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2000). Everyone can write better (and you are no exception). In K. A. Keough & J. Garcia, Social Psychology of Gender, Race, and Ethnicity. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Clark, H. H. (2002). Speaking in time. Speech Communication, 36, 5-13. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2003). Pointing and placing. In S. Kita (Ed.), Pointing. Where language, culture, and cognition meet (pp. 243-268). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2004). Pragmatics of language performance. In L. R. Horn & G. Ward (Eds.), Handbook of pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 365-382. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2004). Variations on a ranarian theme. In S. Strömqvist & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: Typological and contextual perspectives, pp. 457-476. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2005). Coordinating with each other in a material world. Discourse Studies, 7(4-5), 507-525. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2006). Context and common ground. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 2nd Edition. Oxford: Elsevier. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2006). Pauses and hesitations: Psycholinguistic approach. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 2nd Edition. Oxford: Elsevier. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2006). Social actions, social commitments. In S. C. Levinson & N. J. Enfield (Eds.) Roots of human sociality: Culture, cognition, and human interaction. Oxford: Berg Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2008). Talking as if. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE international conference on Human Robot Interaction (pp. 393-394). New York NY: ACM. PDF

Clark, H. H. & Fox Tree, J. E. (2002). Using uh and um in spontaneous speech. Cognition, 84, 73-111. PDF

Clark, H. H. & Krych, M. A. (2004). Speaking while monitoring addressees for understanding. Journal of Memory and Language, 50(1), 62-81. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Bangerter, A. (2004). Changing conceptions of reference. In I. Noveck & D. Sperber (Eds.), Experimental pragmatics. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 25-49. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Van Der Wege, M. (2001). Imagination in discourse. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, & H. E. Hamilton (Eds.), Handbook of discourse analysis. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Van Der Wege, M. (2002). Psycholinguistics. In D. L. Medin (Ed.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology, Third Edition: Cognition (pp. 209-259). New York: John Wiley. PDF



2010s

Clark, H. H. (2012). Spoken discourse and its emergence. In M. J. Spivey, K. McRae, and M. F. Joanisse (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 541-557). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2012). Unspoken questions, unspoken answers. In J.-P. de Ruiter (Ed.), Questions: Formal, functional and interactional perspectives (pp. 81-102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2014). Spontaneous discourse. In V. Ferreira, M. Goldrick, and M. Miazzo (Eds.) Oxford Handbook of Language Production. Oxford: Oxford University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. & Henetz, T. (2014). Working together. In T. Holtgraves (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Language and Social Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Van Der Wege, M. (2014). Imagination in narrative discourse. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, & H. E. Hamilton (Eds.), Handbook of discourse analysis (2nd edition). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2014). How to talk with children. In I. Arnon, M. Casillas, C. Kurumada, & B Estigarribia (Eds.), Language in interaction: Studies in honor or Eve V. Clark. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. PDF



Stanford University | Jordan Hall, Building 420 | Stanford, CA 94305-2130 | clark(at)stanford.edu | Phone: (650) 725-2431 | Fax: (650) 725-5699