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Structure 2.0 (beta version 2) 

released February 2003   <known bugs in previous version>

The program structure is a free software package for using multi-locus genotype data to investigate population structure. Its uses include inferring the presence of distinct populations, assigning individuals to populations, studying hybrid zones, identifying migrants and admixed individuals, and estimating population allele frequencies in situations where many individuals are migrants or admixed. It can be applied to most of the commonly-used genetic markers, including microsatellites, RFLPs and SNPs. This method was described in an article in Genetics (155: 945-959). [Abstract], [Manuscript], [Example], ["Time-lapse" plots]

The new version includes a new graphical front end, as well as various updates and extensions, including a model to deal with linked loci.


We ask that you fill out a web form to register software downloads. Executables are currently available for the following platforms. 

Click here for installation instructions.

Package with graphical front end:
For UNIX: [Sun], and [Linux]

For Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP : [Windows]

Package without front end:
For UNIX: [Sun], and [Linux]

For DOS/Windows: [DOS/Windows]

For MacOS X: [Mac OS X]  
(Thanks to Eric Anderson for compiling this)


Documentation is included in the packages, but can be downloaded directly from here.
It is also available online.

Known bugs

Please refer to this page for known bugs in  the initial beta version release.

Report bugs in current version (beta version 2) to 

We would welcome comments on the new version.

Please notify us regarding problems with downloading, etc.