G R E Y,



My research focuses on quantifying, modeling, and simulating the dynamic interaction between occupants and buildings towards harmonizing occupant well-being and building sustainability. It addresses the need to raise occupant awareness of their psycho-physiological state towards improved knowledge work productivity and for buildings to dynamically support this effort in a sustainable manner.


Space-Mate: A Framework to Harmonize Occupant Well-being and Building Sustainability


Knowledge workers are a company's greatest asset. The following are key drivers for this study: (1) Poor health, lost productivity and active disengagement of knowledge workers cost the U.S. economy over $1.3 trillion dollars per year. (2) Knowledge workers spend 90% of their time indoors in buildings. (3) Buildings consume 73% of U.S. electricity and generate 40% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. How can we harmonize the knowledge worker's well-being and the building's sustainable performance?

Traditionally, the interaction between occupants and buildings has been represented using occupant comfort models and building performance simulation tools. These comfort models are discrete, deterministic and based on aggregated, qualitative survey data. Building performance models consider occupants as part of a building's internal loads. Therefore, quantifying the impacts of occupants on the building is discrete, deterministic, and based on generic occupant schedules. Neither consider quantitative occupant psycho-physiological state- and well-being variables, nor the relation between these occupant variables, and the building's performance in support of the occupant's activities.

To address these challenges, I formalized my research questions:

Space-Mate presents a comprehensive framework and simulation prototype that represents the dynamic interaction between an occupant's psycho-physiological state and well-being, and the building's sustainable performance during typical knowledge work activities. To develop Space-Mate, I assign agency to both occupant and building room and leverage a 3-step methodology: (1) Monitor, (2) Model, and (3) Simulate.

The simulation prototype results indicate that Space-Mate's decision-making framework can lead up to a 40% improvement in occupant well-being, and when the occupant and building work together we can achieve similar results with up to 50% less energy consumption.

Space-Mate contributes to the built environment, affective computing and physiology fields of research by proposing novel monitoring strategies, models, and a comprehensive simulation and decision-making framework that considers the occupant psycho-physiological state, the building state, and the occupant's influence on building state transitions, during typical, low-intensity, knowledge work activities.


Peer Reviewed Conference Papers

Book Chapter


Invited Presentations

Invention Disclosure - Stanford Office of Technology Licensing

Created by: F. Grey

Last Update: July 2019