Structure Software

Pritchard Lab, Stanford University

Structure 2.1

[Go here to download Structure 2.2]

Structure 2.1 released July 2003, updated August 2004      change log (windows patch released March 2007)

The program structure is a free software package for using multi-locus genotype data to investigate population structure. Its uses include inferring the presence of distinct populations, assigning individuals to populations, studying hybrid zones, identifying migrants and admixed individuals, and estimating population allele frequencies in situations where many individuals are migrants or admixed. It can be applied to most of the commonly-used genetic markers, including microsatellites, RFLPs and SNPs. This method was described in an article in Genetics (155: 945-959).  Extensions to the method were published in Genetics 2003 (164:1567-1587)[Example], ["Time-lapse" plots]

The new version includes a new graphical front end, as well as various updates and extensions, including a model to deal with linked loci.

Structure homepage

Registration We ask that you fill out a web form to register software downloads. Executables are currently available for the following platforms. 

Package with graphical front end:
For UNIX: [Sun], and [Linux]

For Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP : [Windows][Patch]

Package without front end:
For UNIX: [Sun], and [Linux]

For DOS/Windows: [DOS/Windows][Patch]

For MacOS X: [Mac OS X]
(Thanks to Eric Anderson for compiling this)

Plotting program:

Plotting program (by Noah Rosenberg) and data used for "Genetic Structure of Human Populations" (Science Dec 2002).


Documentation is included in the packages, but can be downloaded directly from here.
It is also available online.

Click here for installation instructions.

Earlier Releases

Version 1.0
Version 2.0 beta
Please refer to this page for known bugs in the 2.0 beta release.

Please contact us to report any bugs or other problems at