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Download Structure 2.2 (released 4/2007)

structure homepage

The program structure is a free software package for using multi-locus genotype data to investigate population structure. Its uses include inferring the presence of distinct populations, assigning individuals to populations, studying hybrid zones, identifying migrants and admixed individuals, and estimating population allele frequencies in situations where many individuals are migrants or admixed. It can be applied to most of the commonly-used genetic markers, including microsatellites, RFLPs and SNPs. This method was described in an article in Genetics (155: 945-959).  Extensions to the method were published in Genetics 2003 (Falush et al: 164:1567-1587) and Molecular Ecology Notes 2007 (Falush et al)
[Example], ["Time-lapse" plots]

The new version includes a model to deal with dominant markers.


We ask that you fill out a web form to register software downloads. Executables are currently available for the following platforms. 
Package with graphical front end:
For UNIX: [Linux], and [Solaris]

For Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP : [Windows]

For Mac OS X: [Mac OS X]

Package without front end:
For UNIX: [Linux], and [Sun]

For DOS/Windows: [DOS/Windows]

For MacOS X: [Mac OS X]

Plotting program:

Plotting program (by Noah Rosenberg) and data used for "Genetic Structure of Human Populations" (Science Dec 2002).


Documentation is included in the packages, but can be downloaded directly from here.

Click here for installation instructions.

Earlier Releases

Version 1.0
Version 2.1

Please contact us to report any bugs or other problems at