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Theme of IWSHM 2019:
Enabling Intelligent Life-cycle Health Management for Industry Internet of Things (IIOT)
Click Here to find keynote presentation slides for IWSHM 2019.
SHM in Civil Aviation: Moving the Industry Forward
8:30 am - 9:00 am, September 10th, Memorial Auditorium
Enabling Technologies Group, Delta Air Lines
There is significant interest in implementing Structural Health Monitoring on civil aircraft. However, in order to reach the full potential of SHM, lots of issues remain as challenges. These include regulatory, technical, procedural and financial. While SHM can be used as ‘alternate inspections’ to conventional NDT, a philosophical change is needed to use SHM as part of a Condition Based Maintenance program. Therefore, SHM will involve progressive step-changes in the future. This presentation will provide a vision of these changes and discuss several industry initiatives, including implementation of applications at Delta Air Lines. Additionally, this presentation will highlight the various aerospace industry standardization activities going on via SAE Committees, IATA and A4A Working Groups.
Regulatory Considerations for Structural Health Monitoring Applications in Aviation
9:00 am - 9:30 am, September 10th, Memorial Auditorium
Federal Aviation Administration
SHM technology has been under development for many years; however, its current use in the certified civilian and military aviation applications is still fairly limited. Lack of regulatory guidance is often cited as one of the challenges. While this presentation is not aimed at providing such guidance, it will discuss the relevant elements of the FAA certification framework, with the main focus on high-criticality structural aircraft components. Due to this focus, SHM will be discussed in the context of fatigue and damage tolerance (F&DT) regulatory requirements and guidance, including its comparison with conventional NDI methods, risk mitigation options, etc. Other relevant considerations that will be briefly covered in this presentation include enabling research, role of public standards organizations, gap analysis and technology maturation path, and the role of SHM in the broader IVHM context. Examples of early successes in civil aviation applications and lessons learned will be provided as well.
Statistical Methods for Probability of Detection in Structural Health Monitoring
9:30 am - 10:10 am, September 10th, Memorial Auditorium
Iowa State University
There is much interest in the potential to use Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology to augment traditional Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) methods to improve safety, increase asset availability, and reduce maintenance and inspection costs. SHM has the potential to be used in many areas of application including critical components in aircraft and pipelines. Probability of detection (POD) plays a critical role in aircraft structural integrity programs. As such, there has been a high interest in developing methods that can be used to assess POD in SHM applications. In contrast to traditional NDE laboratory experiments to assess POD that involve a set of specimens with cracks, SHM sensors are fixed and SHM data are acquired over time as cracks grow or otherwise evolve. Traditional statistical methods for assessing POD (e.g., as described in MIL-HDBK 1823A 2009) no longer apply to such repeated-measures data. This purpose of this paper is to review the basic statistical concepts of probability of detection (POD) and to show how these concepts can and should be applied to SHM POD studies by modifying and extending existing methods for estimating POD. The methods presented here are applicable when there is a scalar damage index or other response that will be used to make a detect decision. The paper compares a simple model based on length at detection and a random effects model to describe repeated measures data.
Dynamic and distributed fiber-optic sensing has come of age
8:30 am - 9:00 am, September 11th, Memorial Auditorium
School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University
While the importance of static fiber-optic distributed sensing has been already recognized, appreciated and applied, adding full dynamic, real-time characteristics is of crucial importance, as it enables the use of distributed sensing in time-varying scenarios in multiple applications, such as: aerospace, civil engineering, transportation and more. For example, distributed load monitoring and damage detection in a flying platform must have dynamic capabilities due to the constant motion of the subsystems under investigation. Even 'static' applications, such as the distributed mapping of strain over a loaded long wing, require some dynamic performance. Otherwise, the accuracy of the supposedly 'static' measurements may be compromised by parasitic accompanying vibrations of the structure, or, worse, testing personnel, losing their patience to wait until all vibrations die, will be reluctant to move to fiber-optic sensing. The talk will cover currently available technologies, including a few commercial implementations. It will review some proven SHM applications, discuss relevant specifications, with emphasis on the required sampling rate for the temporal bandwidth of a given application and mention a wish-list for a more widespread use of the technology.
Re-Inventing Disruptive Innovation
9:00 am - 9:30 am, September 11th, Memorial Auditorium
Center on Disruptive Technologies and Digital Cities, Stanford University
The world of disruptive technology has changed radically in the last five years. While corporations have slashed R&D funding for general research, innovation across all industries has entered a crisis stage unable to comprehend how to address the problems of innovation inside the corporation. Meanwhile, total investment spending on disruptive innovation has shifted to outside the corporation. Over $300B is invested in venture, family office, and university funding for disruptive technology crossing every area of application. Corporations have funded $200B of their total $2 trillion spend. This shift has enormous implications for how we approach innovation both from a lab research perspective and from inside the traditional corporation.
Bio-inspired Design of Multifunctional Structures with Sensory, Actuation & Self-learning Capabilities: Air Force Perspective
9:30 am - 10:00 am, September 11th, Memorial Auditorium
Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Microsystems, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)
In quest for revolutionary improvement in reliability, survivability and maintainability of aerospace structures, our scientific community increasingly relies on: (i) new design paradigm for “multifunctionality” which aims to achieve judicious combinations of structural properties and specific functional capabilities dictated by the system requirements and (ii) “multiscale” integration of newly emerging materials, nanoscale devices and microsystems into the multifunctional structures. Multifunctional design is often inspired by optimum combinations of structural and/or functional properties found in biological systems where the survival of species through many evolutionary cycles has led to highly efficient designs and production of complex material systems. Among various visionary contexts for developing such bio-inspired multifunctional structures, the concepts of particular interest are: (a) “autonomic” structures which can sense, diagnose and respond for adjustment with minimum external intervention, (b) “adaptive” structures allowing reconfiguration or readjustment of shape, functionality and mechanical properties on demand, and (c) “self-sustaining” systems with structurally integrated power sources and self-regulating thermal management capabilities. Significant progress has been made by Air Force sponsored research programs for the proof of concepts concerning a number of specific cases of autonomic, adaptive and self-sustaining systems. Well-known examples from earlier work include (i) neurological system-inspired sensory network, (ii) self-healing, regeneration and in-situ repair capabilities for air vehicles as well as space platforms, and (iii) self-regulating thermal management of aerospace structures. The more recent examples of key emerging technologies are: (1) avian-inspired fly-by-feel morphing wing for the next generation of air vehicles, (2) artificial synaptic devices with “integrated” analog signal processing, memory, and learning functions in a single system, and (3) neuromorphic circuits with high-speed parallel signal processing and self-learning capabilities. Along with other exciting developments in manufacturing technologies as well as simulation methods, these advances place the state of affairs at a tipping point where entirely new classes of multifunctional structures can be designed in multiscale by high-fidelity computational modeling methods and are fabricated by multi-material additive manufacturing techniques. This overview presentation will address key scientific issues underpinning further advancement of multifunctional materials and structures.
The use of long-term observations in enhancing bridge evaluation
8:30 am - 9:00 am, September 12th, Memorial Auditorium
University of Manitoba, Canada
It is usual that for determining the load carrying capacities of existing bridges – called evaluation – the same principles are employed that are used for designing new bridges. The Canadian bridges design codes, namely the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code and the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code, took the lead in changing this mode of evaluation. According to these codes, the strength side of the evaluation inequality is considered through the influence of the analytical assessment of the failure of individual components on the failure of the entire bridge. On the load side of the design equality, account is taken of the density of the traffic on the multiple presence of more than one truck on the bridge.
During the past forty or so years, the authors have evaluated more than one hundred bridges with the help of short-term SHM and found that nearly 75% of the tested bridges had more load carrying capacity than could be assessed by only analytical evaluations. While short-term SHM is very useful in identifying the hidden reserves of strength in existing bridges, it provides little information on the load side of the evaluation inequality, especially on the multi-presence of trucks. The authors have also been involved in recent long-term SHM of several bridges in the Province of Manitoba in Canada. They have found that long-term observations from the SHM of bridges are useful not only in identifying the hidden reserves of strengths in existing bridges, but also provide highly useful data about the load side of the design inequality. With the help of specific examples, a case is made in this paper on the usefulness of long-term SHM in enhancing the evaluation of existing bridges.
On the Value of Structural Health Information
9:00 am - 9:30 am, September 12th, Memorial Auditorium
Danish Hydrocarbon Research and Technology Centre (DHRTC), Denmark
Associate Professor and Guest Researcher
BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany
Associate Professor and Head of Research Group
Technical University of Denmark, DECPA: Decision Processes and Analytics, Lyngby, Denmark
Structural Health Information (SHI) may hold a high potential for industrial, life safety and sustainability value and may facilitate in this way an optimal and intelligent life cycle management of infrastructure and machinery systems. SHI may be provided by various sources such as e.g. structural health monitoring, testing and digital technologies and networks such as the Industry Internet of Things (IIOT). In order to fully exploit the potential of SHI, an integration of SHI in the life cycle knowledge, performance and utility management of infrastructure and machinery systems is required.
This paper provides insights into a framework, methods and tools for the quantification of the industrial and societal value of SHI as an approach for an efficient and intelligent life cycle management of infrastructure and machinery systems. The framework, methods and tools have been developed within scientific networking project COST Action TU1402 (www.tu-1402.eu). The paper starts out with elaborating and exemplarily illustrating the fundamentals of detection theory and the Bayesian reliability, utility and decision theory. Insights to the modeling of the basic types, the precision and the costs of SHI are provided and the adaptation of structural knowledge, performance and utility management models is derived. With a set of generic studies and case studies, the value assessment of different SHI types is demonstrated and the boundaries for achieving a high industrial and societal value of SHI are explicated. The paper concludes with recommendations for infrastructure and machinery system owners and operators for achieving an efficient life cycle management by employing value of SHI analyses.
NDE and SHM in the age of Industry 4.0
9:30 am - 10:00 am, September 12th, Memorial Auditorium
Iowa NDE Center
Conventional NDT is a mature technology, in large part controlled by codes and standards, which is resistant to rapid change. SHM has been talked about for more than 30 years and in many areas adding as a retrofit is hard and even in new equipment for many potential application areas it has yet to be implemented. That said, NDE and SHM as tools for integrated approaches to life cycle management, do appear to be on the cusp of major changes. To support advanced manufacturing and use of composites there is a need to move beyond focusing on detection of discrete defects to assessment of material state, damage and its evolution throughout a components life cycle. Condition based maintenance is now routinely applied to rotating machinery, with data transmitted wirelessly and reviewed automatically, to give a prognostic or remaining life estimate. Advances in computer and communications technology, the internet of things and management of Big Data offer the infrastructure needed for prognostics to be applied to structural materials. This talk will highlight some challenges and opportunities provided by additive manufacturing, new design and assessment tools that bring stress analysis and NDE together, and early steps which demonstrate how NDE and SHM can potentially be revolutionized to meet the opportunities and challenges of Industry 4.0.