100% Wind, Water, and Solar (WWS) All-Sector Energy Roadmaps and Grid Studies for 145 Countries

Follow @mzjacobson

Low-Cost Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Insecurity for 145 countries

Paper+Supplemental Information, Energy & Environmental Sciences 2022 (pdf)
Infographic summaries from this study (All-145-Countries) (Albania) (Algeria) (Angola) (Argentina) (Armenia) (Australia) (Austria) (Azerbaijan) (Bahrain) (Bangladesh) (Belarus) (Belgium) (Benin) (Bolivia) (Bosnia-Herz) (Botswana) (Brazil) (Brunei) (Bulgaria) (Cambodia) (Cameroon) (Canada) (Chile) (China) (Colombia) (Congo) (CongoDR) (Costa Rica) (Cote d'Ivoire) (Croatia) (Cuba) (Curacao) (Cyprus) (Czech Republic) (Denmark) (Dominican Rep) (Ecuador) (Egypt) (El Salvador) (Equatorial Guinea ) (Eritrea) (Estonia) (Ethiopia) (Finland) (France) (Gabon) (Georgia) (Germany) (Ghana) (Gibraltar) (Greece) (Guatemala) (Haiti) (Honduras) (Hong Kong) (Hungary) (Iceland) (India) (Indonesia) (Iran) (Iraq) (Ireland) (Israel) (Italy) (Jamaica) (Japan) (Jordan) (Kazakhstan) (Kenya) (Kosovo) (Kuwait) (Kyrgyz Rep) (LaoPDR) (Latvia) (Lebanon) (Libya) (Lithuania) (Luxembourg) (Macedonia) (Malaysia) (Malta) (Mauritius) (Mexico) (Moldova) (Mongolia) (Montenegro) (Morocco) (Mozambique) (Myanmar) (Namibia) (Nepal) (Netherlands) (New Zealand) (Nicaragua) (Niger) (Nigeria) (North Korea) (Norway) (Oman) (Pakistan) (Panama) (Paraguay) (Peru) (Philippines) (Poland) (Portugal) (Qatar) (Romania) (Russia) (Saudi Arabia) (Senegal) (Serbia) (Singapore) (Slovakia) (Slovenia) (South Korea) (South Africa) (South Sudan) (Spain) (Sri Lanka) (Sudan) (Suriname) (Sweden) (Switzerland) (Syria) (Taiwan) (Tajikistan) (Tanzania) (Thailand) (Togo) (Trinidad-Tobago) (Tunisia) (Turkey) (Turkmenistan) (UAE) (Ukraine) (United Kingdom) (United States) (Uruguay) (Uzbekistan) (Venezuela) (Vietnam) (Yemen) (Zambia) (Zimbabwe)

Interactive map with these infographics (link)
Layman's summary of study - The Hill (link)
145-country xlsx-spreadsheets (xlsx)
Diagram of WWS Generators, Storage, and Equipment 100% WWS (pdf)
Timeline to transition 145 countries to 100% WWS (pdf)
New land area needed to transition 145 countries to 100% WWS (pdf)
Change in CO2 upon implementing WWS (pdf)
Response to comment on 145-country paper (pdf). Comment (pdf)

Impacts of green hydrogen for steel, ammonia, and long-distance transport on the cost of meeting electricity, heat, cold, and hydrogen demand in 145 countries (pdf)

New results showing 100% WWS powering (Canada), (Russia), and (Iceland) with existing hydropower but no batteries

New results showing 100% WWS powering (the U.S.) and (China) with existing hydropower and batteries

Layman's book: No Miracles Needed: How Today's Technology Can Save Our Climate and Clean Our Air (link)

Textbook: 100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything (link)

Previous 143-Country and 139-Country 100% WWS Studies (link)

Previous 50-U.S.-State 100% WWS Studies (link)

Previous Town and City 100% WWS Studies (link)

Previous 100% WWS studies for the world as a whole (link)

Original 2008 paper justifying the use of 100% Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS) (link)

More grid integration studies showing 100% reliability of 100% WWS in the U.S. and Worldwide (link)

Abstract of and links to 100% WWS roadmap and grid reliability papers (pdf)

Return to Mark Jacobson's Home Page

Follow @mzjacobson

Number of visitiors to this site since October 31, 2021:

web counter