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2019 IWSHM Special Sessions


Please click on the corresponding title of each Special Session to get more information.


Guided Waves in Structures for SHM Prof. Wieslaw Ostachowicz
SHM Technology in Wind Turbines Prof. Wieslaw Ostachowicz
Probabilistic SHM Prof. Daniele Zonta
Human Performance Monitoring Prof. Ken Loh
Multifunctional Materials and Structures Prof. Ken Loh, Prof. Donghyeon Ryu and
Prof. Nathan Salowitz
Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems Dr. Erik Blasch and Prof. Fotis Kopsaftopoulos
Recent Advances on Data Processing Techniques for Ultrasonics-based SHM Prof. Salvatore Salamone
Diagnostics and Prognostics of Composite Structures towards a Condition-based Maintenance Framework Prof. Dimitrios Zarouchas and Prof. Theodoros Loutas
Assessment of the Value of SHM Information Prof. Sebastian Thöns, Prof. Michael Todd and
Prof. Maria Pina Limongelli
Seismic Structural Health Monitoring for Civil Structures Prof. Maria Pina Limongelli and Dr. Mehmet Celebi
Vision-based Studies for SHM Prof. Mohammad Jahanshahi
Sensing Technologies for Evaluation and Characterization of Concrete Materials Prof. Jinying Zhu and Prof. Ying Zhang
Acoustic Emission and Hybrid SHM Prof. Victor Giurgiutiu
Structural Health Monitoring and Condition-based Maintenance of High-speed and Intercity Railways Prof. Yi-Qing Ni, Prof. Hua-Peng Chen and
Prof. Qingsong Feng
Integration of physical modeling, monitoring and machine learning for SHM Prof. Elói J. F. Figueiredo and Prof. Ionut Moldovan
Nonlinear Acoustic and Ultrasonic Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring Prof. Tribikram Kundu
Use of Optical, MEMS/NEMS and CNT sensors for structural health monitoring systems Prof. Jayantha Epaarachchi
Distributed and Quasi-distributed Fiber-optic and Electrical Sensors, and Associated Data Analysis and Management Prof. Branko Glisic and Prof. Daniele Zonta
SHM for Heavy and Critical Equipment Dr. Keqin Ding
Digital Twin of Civil Infrastructure Prof. Kamyab Zandi and Prof. Vahid Nik
Human-Machine Interfaces for Structural Inspection Prof. Fernando Moreu
Higher Level Inspection by Instrumenting Bridges - Implementing SHM into the Codes Dr. Douglas Thomson
The Impact of Engineering Informatics: The Law Legacy in the Field of Structural Health Monitoring Prof. Jerome Lynch
A state-wide focus on SHM Mr. Tal Yehoshua


Guided Waves in Structures for SHM

Organizer: Prof. Wieslaw Ostachowicz

Key words: sensors, sensing, SHM, damage detection, signal processing

Scope of Session

The session covers the main disciplines which are based on guided waves propagations in both isotropic and anisotropic materials. Authors are encouraged to submit papers that include the elastic waves propagation phenomenon which span a wide range from linear and non–linear, 1D, 2D and 3D, time or frequency, experimental and numerical approaches in complementary investigations of structures. The proposed novel techniques should allow to perform efficient both local and global SHM technologies. Considered above investigations are intended to develop variety of techniques being related to diagnostics (damage size estimation and damage type recognition) and prognostics. Promising combination of investigated techniques should lead to an innovative approach to ensure safety operation.


SHM Technology in Wind Turbines

Organizer: Prof. Wieslaw Ostachowicz

Key words: wind turbines, sensors, sensing, SHM, damage detection, signal processing

Scope of Session

The session covers the main Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) topics which are focused on wind turbine structures. The research methodologies used here span a wide range of experimental and numerical approaches in complementary investigations of rotor with blades, drive train and support structure. The crucial issue is to assess fibre reinforced polymer materials because they are widely used for wind turbine blades. The research methodologies should span a wide range of topics from piezoelectric transducers, elastic waves propagation phenomenon, fibre Bragg gratings, structural vibrations analysis, electro–mechanical impedance method, acoustic emission, damage mechanics, 3D laser vibrometry applications and others. The combination of proposed techniques allows to perform efficient both local and global SHM of the structure. It also includes a variety of techniques being related to diagnostics (damage size estimation and damage type recognition) and prognostics. Promising combination of selected techniques should lead to an innovative approach to ensure safety operation of the structure.


Probabilistic SHM

Organizers: Prof. Daniele Zonta

Key words: Bayesian inference, probabilistic methods, sensor fusion, structural reliability, risk analysis, decision making

Scope of Session

Structural health monitoring aims to understand the condition of a structure based on sensor observations, a process which is typically affected by uncertainties in the model assumptions and in the measurements. Key questions are how to provide a reliable and robust diagnosis, properly accounting for these uncertainties, and how to rationally exploit the monitoring information to make decision on such issues as structural maintenance, repair and replacement. The goal of the session is to bring together researchers working on statistical data interpretation, structural risk assessment, and decision making. Contributions are invited in the fields of structural reliability, probabilistic analysis, Bayesian logic, sensor fusion, risk analysis, including economic and social aspects that affect decisions in SHM applications. Contributions proposing methodological developments and in-field applications are both welcome.


Human Performance Monitoring

Organizer: Prof. Ken Loh

Scope of Session

Structural health monitoring and damage prognosis research has been targeted for ensuring structural integrity and safety. However, monitoring the “human structure” and how they interact with and control artificial structures is crucial for optimizing system performance and functionality. Often, both the human operator and structure need to be treated as a system and evaluated together, since failure of any one of these could result in mission failure or poor performance. Recently, there has been growing interests in developing new or adapting existing sensing technologies/methods for monitoring human performance. This special session is soliciting contributions focused on sensing the physiological and psychological conditions of human performance, as well as the interactions/interfaces between humans and artificial structural systems. Examples of specific topics of interest include: Bio-marker and bio-molecular sensing; Body sensor networks; Flexible electronics and sensors; Digital health; Human protective and enhancement systems; Human-machine interfaces and numerical modeling; Human-prosthetic interfaces; Implantable sensors; In vivo and in vitro applications; Noninvasive and/or noncontact sensing; Textile-based sensors; and Wearable technologies.


Multifunctional Materials and Structures

Organizer: Prof. Kenneth Loh, Prof. Donghyeon Ryu and Prof. Nathan Salowitz

Key words: actuation, energy dissipation, energy harvesting, metamaterial, nanocomposite, self-healing, sensing, stimuli-responsive

Scope of Session

Multifunctional materials and structures are ones that have been intentionally engineered to exhibit more than one precisely defined property or functionality. Often, encoding of desired properties is achieved through a “bottom-up” design methodology during material manufacturing. While nanotechnology has enabled molecular assembly of a variety of new materials/structures that are then scaled up, the design and engineering of innovative multifunctional structures can occur at any length scale. As a result, this new class of material system can exist in the form of a nanocomposite, composite, coating, colloidal dispersion, and/or multi-phase material. This special session welcomes contributions that showcase the breadth of multifunctional material architectures, nanocomposites, metamaterials, scalable nano-manufacturing methods, characterization, numerical modeling, validation and testing, and technology demonstration, among many others.


Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS)

Organizer: Dr. Erik Blasch and Prof. Fotis Kopsaftopoulos

Scope of Session

For the last couple of decades, the DDDAS paradigm has brought together modeling, controls, and measurements towards efficient applications where instrumentation data and executing models result in a dynamic feedback control loop. Measurement data, dynamically incorporated into a system executing model, improves model accuracy, accelerates simulation analysis, and/or enhances model robustness. Likewise, the executing application model controls the instrumentation process to guide the measurement process (http://www.1dddas.org/). Papers are sought that utilize the DDDAS paradigm for understanding and modeling the behavior of complex systems, be they natural, engineered, or societal; towards structural health monitoring (SHM). Applications include physical systems, (industrial) internet of things, big computing, full-scale simulations, networked sensors, or designs towards situational awareness of engineered systems. Preference is given to papers that highlight comparative analysis over real data with modeling approaches and heterogeneous sensor implementation.


Recent Advances on Data Processing Techniques for Ultrasonics-based SHM

Organizer: Prof. Salvatore Salamone

Scope of Session

This special session aims to collect and share recent developments in data processing techniques to enhance accuracy and capabilities of ultrasonic wave techniques for the SHM of complex structures. Authors are encouraged to submit papers topics that include but are not limited to: 1) deep learning, 2) data mining, 3) data analytics, 4) sparse Matrices for machine learning. Both theoretical contributions and practical applications are welcome.


Diagnostics and prognostics of composite structures towards a condition-based maintenance framework

Organizer: Prof. Dimitrios Zarouchas and Prof. Theodoros Loutas

Key words: Composites, diagnostics & prognostics, SHM, stochastic modelling, data-driven & physics-based models, feature extraction, fatigue & impact damage monitoring

Scope of Session

Prognostics of the remaining useful service life, residual strength and residual stiffness of composite structures based on SHM measurements, is a new dynamically rising field towards a condition-based maintenance framework for light-weight composite structures.
This special session will gather the research community active in the area of damage diagnostics & prognostics, address the challenges, discuss the present as well as future trends and exchange ideas & experiences across different engineering applications. Studies in the area of prognostics of composite structures subjected to various types loading, i.e. fatigue, impact, using data-driven and physics-based models or a combination of those models, are expected to be presented in this session.
Emphasis is given in the utilization of various SHM techniques, different modeling philosophies (data-driven/physics based) and machine learning algorithms. Issues of optimized feature extraction towards multi-sensor data fusion and more effective diagnostic/prognostic schemes are also of potential interest.


Assessment of the Value of Structural Health Information

Organizer: Prof. Sebastian Thöns, Prof. Michael D. Todd, Prof. Maria Pina Limongelli

Key words: Value of Information, SHM, decision support

Scope of Session

Information gathered using Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems can substantially contribute to an enhanced performance of civil structures and other infrastructure, transportation, and machinery systems by providing an improved benefit generation and the reduction of operational costs and risks throughout their life cycle. However, the link of Structural Health Information (SHI) to the performance enhancement of technical systems is often missing, which prevents a systematic quantification of the value of SHI. This may lead to a lack of addressing and demonstrating the SHI systems impact and value.
The value of SHI can be quantified with the Bayesian decision analysis necessitating the modelling of decision scenarios involving (1) models of technical and SHI system life cycle performance, (2) an objective function of a decision maker and (3) decision variables associated to the SHI strategies and technical system performance management strategies. The value of SHI provides the basis for a targeted and optimized SHI system development optimizing the benefit generation, costs and risks for the technical system management.
With this special session, the research efforts for quantifying and optimizing the value of SHI will be gathered and discussed. Contributors in the fields of SHM optimization, decision analysis, uncertainty modelling and risk and reliability research are welcome.


Seismic Structural Health Monitoring for Civil Structures

Organizer: Prof. Maria Pina Limongelli and Dr. Mehmet Celebi

Scope of Session

The aim of this Special Session is to report recent advances in the field of Seismic Structural Health Monitoring and successful applications for civil structures and infrastructures: buildings, bridges, historical structures, dams, wind turbines, pipelines.
The session deals with theoretical and computational issues and applications. We welcome contributions that cover, but are not limited to, seismic SHM algorithms for identification and damage detection, requisite strong motion arrays and real time monitoring systems and projects, instrumentation and measurements methods and tools, optimal sensors location, experimental tests, integration of seismic SHM in procedures for risk assessment and emergency management.
Such a session will provide a venue for exchange of information to ongoing developments and assess successes and limited successes of SHM.


Vision-based Studies for SHM

Organizer: Prof. Mohammad Jahanshahi

Scope of Session

It is generally accepted that artificial intelligence (AI) enabled computer vision will drive the next revolution in information modeling and decision making. Furthermore, due to the recent advances in sensors and computing technologies, the use of vision-based approaches provides an unprecedented opportunity to complement traditional structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies, which will ultimately improve the resilience of structural systems. Moreover, vision methods are generally contactless and appropriate to be incorporated in mobile sensing robots such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), providing a transformative monitoring platform for civil structures. This mini-symposium will provide the opportunity to discuss recent theoretical, computational and experimental advances in using computer vision and machine learning approaches for structural identification, control, damage detection, and health monitoring. Topics relevant to this session include, but not limited to, deep learning, innovative imaging for structures, image/video data collection and analysis, damage detection, classification, convolutional neural networks, network pruning, quantification and localization, change recognition, displacement and dynamic measurements, sensor calibration, fusion and optimization, scene reconstruction, 3D LIDAR and depth sensors, activity monitoring, robotics integration, vision-based inspection using UAVs and UGVs, and other new emerging vision-based technologies.


Sensing Technologies for Evaluation and Characterization of Concrete Materials

Organizer: Prof. Jinying Zhu and Prof. Ying Zhang

Scope of Session

This session will present recent advances in structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for concrete property or damage characterization. The presented research works may include experimental methods, numerical simulations, or data analysis related to concrete material property or damage characterization using advanced sensing technologies. Topics of interest include: characterization of mechanical properties of concrete; evaluation of micro-cracking damage due to various types of aging mechanisms, such as Alkali-silica Reaction (ASR); characterization of air voids or porosity in concrete. Sensing methods may include but are not limited to: ultrasonic waves, nonlinear acoustics, acoustic emission, electromagnetic waves, thermography, electrical resistivity, optical sensing, and self-sensing methods.


Acoustic Emission and Hybrid SHM

Organizer: Prof. Victor Giurgiutiu

Key words: acoustic emission, AE, non-destructive evaluation, NDE, structural health monitoring, SHM, passive detection, active detection, fracture, crack growth, fiber breakage, damage

Scope of Session

This special session will address the topic of acoustic emission and hybrid SHM. Acoustic emission (AE) is a passive SHM technique that relies on ‘listening’ to the elastic waves generated when an incremental crack growth occurs. The elastic waves associated with AE events can travel a considerable distances in metallic structures which have a low damping dissipation coefficient. AE waves also travel in composite materials but they their travel distance may be less due to the damping dissipation of polymer matrix composites. Hybrid SHM techniques encompass a large class of methods that aim at combining several techniques in order to increase the probability of detection. For example, one may use passive SHM to record a damaging event (such as an impact in a composite structure) and then apply active SHM to try estimate the magnitude of the resulting damage and its severity. Or, one can listen to AE events which indicate that cracks are progressing into the structure and then follow up with active SHM technique to evaluate the crack size. Or, one can use two different active SHM techniques (e.g., pitch-catch wave propagation and electromechanical impedance standing waves) to better detect the damage location and size. But these are just examples. The session is open to all innovative techniques aimed at enhancing the SHM capabilities. Contributions the judiciously combine theory and experiments are highly encouraged.


Structural Health Monitoring and Condition-based Maintenance of High-speed and Intercity Railways

Organizer: Prof. Yi-Qing Ni, Prof. Hua-Peng Chen and Prof. Qingsong Feng

Key words: High-speed railway, intercity railway, online monitoring, on-board monitoring, operational safety assessment, condition-based maintenance, smart infrastructure

Scope of Session

Operational safety is the most important issue in mass transportation, especially for high-speed rail in view of its mass transportation volume and fast speed. Developing smarter rail systems by integrating sensing, communication, computing and information technologies is becoming an urgent need to satisfy the safety and reliability requirements in modern rail industry. This special session provides a platform for sharing state-of-the-art research and applications in structural health monitoring (SHM) and condition-based maintenance for high-speed and intercity railways. The scope of this session covers a broad range of research topics, including but not limited to:
• Online and on-board monitoring of rolling stock (coaches, bogies, and wheels);
• Non-destructive and/or online monitoring of rail tracks;
• Instrumentation for rail infrastructure monitoring (railway bridges, tunnels and subgrade);
• High-speed railway intrusion and obstacle detection techniques;
• Earthquake early warning systems for high speed rail;
• Advanced sensors and sensory networks for rail SHM;
• Multi-functional materials, wireless sensing, and energy harvesting for rail SHM;
• Monitoring-assisted prediction and control of vibration and noise induced by trains;
• Condition-based maintenance strategy for rail infrastructure;
• Predictive modelling tools for health management of rail systems.


Integration of physical modeling, monitoring and machine learning for SHM

Organizer: Prof. Elói J. F. Figueiredo and Prof. Ionut Moldovan

Scope of Session

In the last decades, the long-term structural health monitoring of civil structures has been mainly performed using two approaches: model- and data-based. The former approach tries to identify damage by relating the monitoring data to the prediction of numerical (e.g., finite element) models of the structure. The latter approach is data- driven, where measured data from a given state condition is compared to the baseline or reference condition. A challenge in both approaches is to make the distinction between the variations of the structural response caused by damage and environmental or operational variability. This special session intends to promote a hybrid approach that integrates model- and data-based approaches to the structural health monitoring, using machine learning algorithms. Data recorded in situ under regular conditions are combined with data obtained from finite element simulations of more extreme environmental and operational scenarios, and both are input into the training process of machine learning algorithms for damage identification.


Nonlinear Acoustic and Ultrasonic Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

Organizer: Prof. Tribikram Kundu

Scope of Session

This special session will have papers on various nonlinear acoustic techniques. Papers are invited from different aspects of nonlinear acoustic and ultrasonic techniques such as higher harmonic generation, sub-harmonic generation, nonlinear resonant acoustic spectroscopy, vibro-acoustics and wave modulation between pumping frequency and probing frequency and sideband generation. How these techniques are used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) will be the focus of this special session. Papers dealing with the difficulties and shortcomings of various nonlinear techniques and challenges encountered by the investigators in implementing nonlinear techniques using body waves and or guided waves are of interest for this session. Recent developments of new promising nonlinear techniques that can overcome some of the existing shortcomings are of particular interest. Objective of this session is to give the attendees a broad overview and recent developments of nonlinear acoustic techniques.


Use of Optical, MEMS/NEMS and CNT sensors for structural health monitoring systems

Organizer: Prof. Jayantha Epaarachchi

Scope of Session

Due to the continuous development of advanced sensor technologies during the past few years, the traditional health monitoring technologies have significantly taken on a new form. In particular, advanced Optical, MEMS/MENS and CNT sensors have been making inroads to structural health monitoring (SHM) systems in a wide range of critical infrastructures within many engineering fields including aerospace and civil engineering. A major part of these newly developed sensors and related technologies are still being developed in laboratory conditions, thus, there are many challenges for implementation in real life situations. This session aims to display newly developed SHM systems and their implications in engineering applications for constructive feedback from scientific community.


Distributed and Quasi-distributed Fiber-optic and Electrical Sensors, and Associated Data Analysis and Management

Organizers: Prof. Branko Glisic and Prof. Daniele Zonta

Key words: Distributed fiber optic sensors; Sensing skins, sheets, and paints; Self-sensing materials; Dense arrays of active wave-propagation sensors; MEMS; Distributed/decentralized data analysis; Wireless nodes for dense arrays of sensors; Power harvesting for dense arrays of sensors

Scope of Session

Damage frequently occurs in form of strain-field anomalies. Strain-sensitive sensors installed at location of damage have unusually high change in their output signal and thus, can detect the damage reliably. However, it is difficult to know the exact location of damage prior to its occurrence. To address this challenge, very dense arrays of sensors could be used. Their “omnipresence” on the structure and their high sensitivity to damage, makes them very promising for reliable and accurate detection, localization, and quantification of damage. Several innovative techniques for enabling distributed and quasi-distributed arrays of sensors emerged in the last decade or so: (i) 1D distributed fiber optic sensors, (ii) 2D distributed sensing skins, paints, and sheets based on nano-technologies, large-area electronics, photonic crystals (nanospheres), conductive polymers, etc., and (iii) 2D and 3D active wave sensing techniques, embedded MEMS, and self-sensing materials. The aims of this special session are (1) to assess the state of the art of the techniques enabling dense arrays of sensors, (2) to identify challenges related to their applicability in real-life settings and (3) to cross-fertilize the research field through an exchange of ideas. In a broader sense, the topic of the session includes data management and power harvesting techniques that can address the challenges related to execution, processing and analysis of large number of measurements performed by very dense arrays of sensors.


SHM for Heavy and Critical Equipment

Organizer: Dr. Keqin Ding

Scope of Session

Heavy and critical equipment mainly includes boiler, pressure vessel, pressure pipeline, lifting machinery, large-scale recreational facilities and other equipment. It is an important infrastructure related to life safety and great danger and closely related to people's life and national economy. Once an accident occurs, it will easily cause economic losses, casualties, and even seriously affect the political economy and social stability. With the rapid development of global economy and the need of major engineering construction, the possession of large-scale and high-parameter equipment has increased rapidly. The service environment of heavy and critical equipment is complex and harsh, such as high temperature, high pressure, high dust, flammability, explosion, corrosion and so on. In the course of service, the failure modes of equipment structure are various and accidents occur frequently. Most of the heavy and critical equipment inspection still stays on the traditional inspection mode of on-site, static and off-line, which has high labor intensity and low inspection efficiency. The existing inspection and detection technology does not match the development of automation and intelligence of special equipment. It is urgent to develop remote, real-time and online health monitoring technology to ensure the safe and reliable operation of equipment.


Digital Twin of Civil Infrastructure

Organizers: Prof. Kamyab Zandi and Prof. Vahid Nik

Key words: Digital Twin, civil infrastructures, cyber-physical system architecture, BIM, FEM, VR, AR, urban systems, smart cities

Scope of Session

A Digital Twin of an infrastructure is a living digital simulation that brings all the data and models together, and updates itself from multiple sources to represent its physical counterpart. Moreover, the Digital Twin, maintained throughout the life cycle of an asset and easily accessible at any time, provides the infrastructure owner/users with an early insight into potential risk induced by aging/deterioration, and even extreme climatic events. This session invites contributions on, but not limited to, cyber-physical system architecture of Digital Twin for civil structures, BIM integration, FEM integration, micro and macro climate data integration, visualization and Auralisation, VR and AR integration as well as urban systems and smart cities. Moreover, contributions concerning lab and field demonstration and proof of concept projects are very welcome.


Human-Machine Interfaces for Structural Inspection

Organizer: Prof. Fernando Moreu

Scope of Session

This session will present recent advances in human-infrastructure interfaces that can allow inspectors to collect critical data more accurately and cost-effectively. Presentations about Augmented Reality (AR), wearable sensors, human-machine devices that augment human capabilities, and new decision-making schemes that are informed by a better human-infrastructure interface are welcome. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for structures benefitting from a better interface between the human and their environment are encouraged in this session. Real-time assessment, augmented cognition, telepresence, and time-machine abilities enabled by technology that is human centered are welcome. Mechanisms, hardware development, and software integration with human perception that increases human awareness, are encourage. This session will also include topics covering new embedded sensors, data collection techniques, human in the loop cyber-physical systems, and cyberlearning.


Higher Level Inspection by Instrumenting Bridges - Implementing SHM into the Codes

Organizer: Dr. Douglas Thomson

Scope of Session

The session covers the concept of a target reliability index for evaluating the load carrying capacity of existing bridges. This index, which is based on risk to human life, is related to three aspects of uncertainties inherent in a bridge: those related to (a) element behaviour, (b) system behavior, and (c) inspection level. It is assumed that all bridge inspections are manual. Citing examples of tests on many instrumented bridges, the paper proposes another level of inspection, which is done with the help of electronic instruments and tests under controlled vehicle loads. The paper proposes simple additions to the clauses of the CHBDC, which can be used to determine the optimum load carrying capacities of existing bridges where structural monitoring information is available.


A state-wide focus on SHM

Organizer: Mr. Tal Yehoshua

Scope of Session

Envisioning the bright future of unmanned airborne vehicles and predicting the ubiquitous use of composite materials in their structures, funding agencies in Israel have decided more than 15 years ago to invest in SHM technology in order to monitor loads, locate damages and, in general, improve the availability of these airplanes at lower maintenance costs. With their small footprint, low weight, embeddability, immunity to electrical interference and multiplexing properties, optical fibers have been chosen as the potentially promising SHM technology. This session, comprising talks from leading Israeli aerospace industries, as well from a major operator, presents the current state of the art, which has been heavily guided and supported by the Israeli Academy.
Most aspects of the Israeli involvement in fiber-optic-based SHM will be covered. From basic research on the technology, through small-scale demonstrators of innovative sensing concepts and finally to full-scale (operational) load monitoring, including production-line activities. A civil engineering application will be also presented.