current photo of Mark Z. Jacobson
Mark Z. Jacobson


Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Director, Atmosphere/Energy Program
Senior Fellow, Woods Institute for the Environment
Senior Fellow, Precourt Institute for Energy
Co-Founder, The Solutions Project, 100.org, and the 100% Clean, Renewable Energy Movement

CLICK HERE FOR PROGRAM IN ATMOSPHERE / ENERGY


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
The Jerry Yang and Akiko Yamazaki Environment and Energy (Y2E2) Building
473 Via Ortega, Room 397
Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Tel: (650) 723-6836
Fax: (650) 723-7058
Email: jacobson@stanford.edu
Follow @mzjacobson

B.S. Civil Engineering, B.A. Economics, and M.S. Environmental Engineering (1988) Stanford University
M.S. (1991) and Ph.D. (1994) Atmospheric Science, University of California at Los Angeles

Full Curriculum Vitae (CV)

Scientific Background

Mark Z. Jacobson’s career has focused on better understanding air pollution and global warming problems and developing large-scale clean, renewable energy solutions to them. Toward that end, he has developed and applied three-dimensional atmosphere-biosphere-ocean computer models and solvers to simulate air pollution, weather, climate, and renewable energy. He has also developed roadmaps to transition countries, states, cities, and towns to 100% clean, renewable energy for all purposes and computer models to examine grid stability in the presence of high penetrations of renewable energy.

Jacobson developed over 85% of the coding for a 3-D urban air quality model coupled with meteorology, a 3-D global air pollution-climate model, and a unified nested global-through-urban air pollution-climate model, GATOR-GCMOM. He started this endeavor in 1990 and has been working on it ever since. The unified model treats mutual feedback to weather and climate of both air pollution gases and particles and nests from the global through urban scale. The review article of Zhang (Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2895-2932, 2008) calls this model "the first fully-coupled online model in the history that accounts for all major feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles." Many features in GATOR-GCMOM are now mainstream in other models worldwide.

In 2000 (Geophysical Research Letters) and 2001 (Nature), he applied his model to discover that black carbon, the main component of soot air pollution particles, might be the second-leading cause of global warming in terms of radiative forcing, after carbon dioxide. This result was supported by several subsequent studies, including a 2013 comprehensive review. These and later papers of his provided the original scientific basis for several laws and regulations on black carbon emission controls worldwide. His findings that carbon dioxide domes over cities and carbon dioxide buildup since preindustrial times have enhanced air pollution mortality through its feedback to particles and ozone served as a scientific basis for the Environmental Protection Agency’s 2009 approval of the first U.S. regulation of carbon dioxide (the California waiver).

With respect to solvers, in 1993, he developed what may have been the world’s fastest ordinary differential equation solver in a three-dimensional model for a given level of accuracy and applied it to atmospheric chemistry. He subsequently developed solvers for cloud and aerosol coagulation, breakup, condensation/evaporation, freezing, dissolution, chemical equilibrium, and lightning; air-sea exchange; ocean chemistry; greenhouse gas absorption; and surface processes.

With respect to energy, in 2001 he published a paper in Science examining the ability of the U.S. to convert a large fraction of its energy to wind power. In 2005, his group developed the first world wind map based on data alone. His students subsequently published papers on reducing the variability of wind energy by interconnecting wind farms; on integrating solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric power into the grid; and on wave power.

In 2009, he coauthored a plan, featured on the cover of Scientific American, to power the world for all purposes with wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). In 2010, he appeared in a TED debate rated as the sixth all-time science and technology TED talk. In 2011, he cofounded The Solutions Project, a non-profit that combines science, business, and culture to educate the public about science based 100% clean-energy roadmaps for 100% of the people. In 2013, his group developed individual WWS energy plans for each of the 50 United States, and in 2017, for 139 countries of the world. The 50-state roadmaps were the primary scientific justification for California and Hawaii laws to transition to 100% clean, renewable electricity by 2045, Vermont to transition to 75% by 2032, and New York to transition to 50% by 2030. They were also the primary scientific justification behind United States House Resolution H.Res. 540, House Bill H.R. 3314, House Bill H.R. 3671, Senate Resolution S.Res. 632, and Senate Bill S.987, calling for 100% clean, renewable energy in the U.S. by 2050. The roadmaps further served as the basis for 100% clean, renewable energy platforms of three presidential candidates in 2016 and the motivation for over 75 cities and over 140 international companies to commit to 100% clean, renewable energy.

To date, he has published two textbooks of two editions each and over 155 peer-reviewed journal articles. He has testified four times for the U.S. Congress. Nearly a thousand researchers have used computer models he has developed. In 2005, he received the American Meteorological Society Henry G. Houghton Award for "significant contributions to modeling aerosol chemistry and to understanding the role of soot and other carbon particles on climate." In 2013, he received an American Geophysical Union Ascent Award for "his dominating role in the development of models to identify the role of black carbon in climate change" and the Global Green Policy Design Award for the "design of analysis and policy framework to envision a future powered by renewable energy." In 2016, he received a Cozzarelli Prize from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences for "outstanding scientific excellence and originality" in his paper on a solution to the U.S. grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of wind, water, and solar power for all purposes. He has also served on the Energy Efficiency and Renewables advisory committee to the U.S. Secretary of Energy and, in 2013, was invited to talk about his world and U.S. clean-energy plans on the Late Show with David Letterman.

Current PhD Graduate Students:

Graduate Student Alumni:

Current Postdoctoral Researchers :

Postdoctoral Researcher Alumni:

Courses taught Public online course Clean, Renewable Wind-Water-Solar (WWS) All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for Towns, Cities, States, and Countries and The Solutions Project Testimony, TED, and Letterman

Textbooks:

book cover of "Atmospheric Modeling"
Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling (1999)

book cover of "Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling, 2nd ed"

Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling, 2d ed. (2005)

book cover of "Atmospheric Pollution: History, Science, and Regulation"

Atmospheric Pollution: History, Science, and Regulation (2002)

book cover of "Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions"

Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions (2012)

Some papers organized by topic (please see Curriculum Vitae for full list)

  1. Roadmaps for transitioning the world, countries, states, cities, and towns to 100% clean, renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) in all energy sectors
    1. A path to sustainable energy by 2030 (Scientific American, 2009)
    2. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials (Energy Policy, 2011)
    3. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, System and Transmission Costs, and Policies (Energy Policy, 2011)
    4. Examining the feasibility of converting New York State’s all-purpose energy infrastructure to one using wind, water, and sunlight (Energy Policy, 2013)
    5. A roadmap for repowering California for all purposes with wind, water, and sunlight(Energy, 2014)
    6. 100% clean and renewable wind, water, sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for the 50 United States (Energy & Environmental Sciences, 2015)
    7. A 100% wind, water, sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy plan for Washington State (Renewable Energy, 2016)
    8. 100% clean and renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for 139 countries of the world (Joule, 2017)
    9. 100% clean, and renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for 53 towns and cities in North America (Sustainable Cities and Society, 2018)

  2. Studies on grid reliability with up to 100% penetration of WWS
    1. Matching demand with supply at low cost among 139 countries within 20 world regions with 100% intermittent wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes (Renewable Energy, 2018)
    2. A low-cost solution to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of intermittent wind, water, and solar for all purposes (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2015)
    3. Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind-electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark (J. Power Sources, 2017)
    4. Flexibility mechanisms and pathways to a highly renewable U.S. electricity future (Energy, 2016)
    5. Temporal and spatial tradeoffs in power system modeling with assumptions about storage: An application of the POWER model (Energy, 2016)
    6. Features of a fully renewable U.S. electricity-system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions (Energy, 2014)
    7. Variability and uncertainty of wind power in the California electric power system (Wind Energy, 2014)
    8. The carbon abatement potential of high penetration intermittent renewables (Energy & Environmental Sciences, 2012)
    9. Effects of aggregating electric load in the United States (Energy Policy, 2012)
    10. The carbon abatement potential of high penetration intermittent renewables (Energy & Environmental Sciences, 2012)
    11. The potential of intermittent renewables to meet electric power demand: A review of current analytical techniques (Proceedings of the IEEE, 2012)
    12. A Monte Carlo approach to generator portfolio planning and carbon emissions assessments of systems with large penetrations of variable renewables (Renewable Energy, 2011)
    13. Reducing offshore transmission requirements by combining offshore wind and wave farms (IEEE Journal of Ocean Engineering, 2011)
    14. Power output variations of co-located offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters in California (Renewable Energy, 2010)
    15. Supplying baseload power and reducing transmission requirements by interconnecting wind farms (J. Applied Meteorology & Climatology, 2007)

  3. Studies examining impacts of energy and transportation technologies on climate, health, and energy security
    1. Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security (Energy & Environmental Science, 2009)
    2. Exploiting wind versus coal (Science, 2001)
    3. The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles (Geophys. Res. Letters, 2004)
    4. Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (Science, 2005)
    5. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and global warming gases (J. Power Sources, 2005)
    6. Effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline vehicles on cancer and mortality in the United States (Environ. Sci. Technol, 2007)
    7. Effects of wind-powered hydrogen fuel cell vehicles on stratospheric ozone and global climate (Geophys. Res. Letters, 2008)
    8. Examining the temperature dependence of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline emissions on air pollution with a largely-explicit chemical mechanism (Atmospheric Environment, 2010)
    9. Examining the impacts of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline photochemical production of smog in a fog using near-explicit gas- and aqueous-chemistry mechanisms (Environ. Res. Letters, 2012)
    10. Worldwide health effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident (Energy & Environmental Science, 2012)
    11. Alternative renewable energy scenarios for New York (Journal of Cleaner Production, 2018)

  4. Studies examining global and regional wind and solar resources and impacts of wind energy
    1. Spatial and temporal distributions of U.S. winds and wind power at 80 m derived from measurements (J. Geophys. Res., 2003)
    2. Evaluation of global wind power (J. Geophys. Res., 2005)
    3. Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent storage in energy end-uses(Geophys. Res. Lett., 2007)
    4. California offshore wind energy potential (Renewable Energy, 2010)
    5. U.S. East Coast offshore wind energy resources and their relationship to peak-time electricity demand (J. Wind Energy, 2012)
    6. Where is the ideal location for a U.S. East Coast offshore grid (Geophys. Res. Lett, 2012)
    7. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2012)
    8. Geographical and seasonal variability of the global "practical" wind resources (J. Applied Geography, 2013)
    9. Taming hurricanes with arrays of offshore wind turbines (Nature Climate Change, 2014)
    10. World estimates of radiation to optimally tilted, 1-axis, and 2-axis tracked PV panels (Solar Energy, 2018) Summary (link)
    11. Coming: Installed and output power densities of onshore and offshore wind turbines worldwide (TBA, 2018)

  5. Studies of the effects of carbon dioxide on human health
    1. On the causal link between carbon dioxide and air pollution mortality (Geophys. Res. Lett., 2008).
    2. The enhancement of local air pollution by urban CO2 domes (Environ. Sci. & Technol, 2010).

  6. Studies of the impacts of black and brown carbon on climate and health
    1. Development and application of a new air pollution modeling system. Part III: Aerosol-phase simulations (Atmos. Environ., 1997)
    2. Isolating nitrated and aeromatic aerosols and nitrated aromatic gases as sources of ultraviolet light absorption (J. Geophys. Res., 1999)
    3. A physically-based treatment of elemental carbon optics: Implications for global direct forcing of aerosols (Geophys. Res. Lett., 2000)
    4. Global direct radiative forcing due to multicomponent anthropogenic and natural aerosols (J. Geophys. Res., 2001)
    5. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols (Nature, 2001)
    6. Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon plus organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming (J. Geophys. Res., 2002)
    7. The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles (Geophys. Res. Lett., 2004)
    8. The short-term cooling but long-term global warming due to biomass burning (J. Climate, 2004)
    9. The climate response of fossil-fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot’s feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity (J. Geophys. Res., 2004)
    10. Effects of externally-through-internally-mixed soot inclusions within clouds and precipitation on global climate (J. Phys. Chem., 2006)
    11. The influence of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, natural emissions, and air quality (J. Geophys. Res., 2009)
    12. Short-term effects of controlling fossil-fuel soot, biofuel soot and gases, and methane on climate, Arctic ice, and air pollution health (J. Geophys. Res., 2010)
    13. Microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols on warm clouds during the Amazon biomass burning season as observed by MODIS: impacts of water vapor and land cover (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2011))
    14. Comparing results from a physical model with satellite and in situ observations to determine whether biomass burning aerosols over the Amazon brighten or burn off clouds (J. Geophys. Res., 2012)
    15. The effects of rerouting aircraft around the Arctic Circle on Arctic and global climate (Climatic Change, 2012)
    16. Investigating cloud absorption effects: Global absorption properties of black carbon, tar balls, and soil dust in clouds and aerosols (J. Geophys. Res., 2012)
    17. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part II: 20-year impacts of exhaust from all commercial aircraft worldwide treated individually at the subgrid scale (Faraday Discussions, 2013)
    18. Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects (J. Geophys. Res., 2014)

  7. Studies of the impacts of biomass burning on climate and health
    1. The short-term cooling but long-term global warming due to biomass burning (J. Climate, 2004)
    2. Microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols on warm clouds during the Amazon biomass burning season as observed by MODIS: impacts of water vapor and land cover (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2011))
    3. Comparing results from a physical model with satellite and in situ observations to determine whether biomass burning aerosols over the Amazon brighten or burn off clouds (J. Geophys. Res., 2012)
    4. Recent shift from forest to savanna burning in the Amazon basin observed from satellite (Environmental Research Letters, 2012)
    5. Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects (J. Geophys. Res., 2014)

  8. Studies of the effects of urban surfaces, white roofs, soil moisture, irrigation, and agriculture on climate and air pollution
    1. Effects of soil moisture on temperatures, winds, and pollutant concentrations in Los Angeles (J. Applied Met., 1999)
    2. GATOR-GCMM: A global-through urban scale air pollution and weather forecast model. 1. Model design and treatment of subgrid soil, vegetation, roads, rooftops, water, sea ice, and snow (J. Geophys. Res., 2001)
    3. The short-term effects of agriculture on air pollution and climate in California (J. Geophys. Res., 2008).
    4. Effects of urban surfaces and white roofs on global and regional climate (J. Climate, 2012)
    5. Ring of impact from the mega-urbanization of Beijing between 2000 and 2009 (J. Geophys. Res., 2015)

  9. Studies of the effects of aircraft on climate
    1. Analysis of emission data from global commercial aviation: 2004 and 2006 (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2010)
    2. Parameterization of subgrid plume dilution for use in large-scale atmospheric simulations (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2010)
    3. Large eddy simulations of contrail development: Sensitivity to initial and ambient conditions over first twenty minutes (J. Geophys. Res., 2011)
    4. Vertical mixing of commercial aviation emissions from cruise altitude to the surface (J. Geophys. Res., 2011)
    5. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part I: Numerical methods for treating the subgrid evolution of discrete size- and composition-resolved contrails from all commercial flights worldwide (J. Comp. Phys., 2011)
    6. The effects of rerouting aircraft around the Arctic Circle on Arctic and global climate (Climatic Change, 2012)
    7. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part II: 20-year impacts of exhaust from all commercial aircraft worldwide treated individually at the subgrid scale (Faraday Discussions, 2013)
    8. Effects of plume-scale versus grid-scale treatment of aircraft exhaust photochemistry (Geophys. Res. Lett., 2013)
    9. An inter-comparative study of the effects of aircraft emissions on surface air quality (J. Geophys. Res., 2017)

  10. High-resolution aerosol evolution near the point of emission
    1. Evolution of nanoparticle size and mixing state near the point of emission (Atmospheric Environment, 2004)
    2. Enhanced coagulation due to evaporation and its effect on nanoparticle evolution (Environmental Science & Technology, 2005))

  11. GATOR-GCMOM Model Development, Evaluation, and Application
    1. Development and application of a new air pollution modeling system. Part I: Gas-phase simulations (Atmospheric Environment, 1996)
    2. Development and application of a new air pollution modeling system. Part II: Aerosol-module structure and design (Atmospheric Environment, 1997)
    3. Development and application of a new air pollution modeling system. Part III: Aerosol-phase simulations (Atmospheric Environment, 1997)
    4. GATOR-GCMM: A global-through urban scale air pollution and weather forecast model. 1. Model design and treatment of subgrid soil, vegetation, roads, rooftops, water, sea ice, and snow (J. Geophys. Res., 2001)
    5. GATOR-GCMM: 2. A study of day- and nighttime ozone layers aloft, ozone in national parks, and weather during the SARMAP field campaign (J. Geophys. Res., 2001).
    6. Examining feedbacks of aerosols to urban climate with a model that treats 3-D clouds with aerosol inclusions (J. Geophys. Res., 2007).
    7. Effects of soil moisture on temperatures, winds, and pollutant concentrations in Los Angeles (J. Applied Meteorology, 1999)
    8. Global direct radiative forcing due to multicomponent anthropogenic and natural aerosols (J. Geophys. Res., 2001)
    9. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols (Nature, 2001)
    10. Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon plus organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming (J. Geophys. Res., 2002)
    11. The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles (Geophys. Res. Letters, 2004)
    12. Evolution of nanoparticle size and mixing state near the point of emission (Atmospheric Environment, 2004)
    13. The short-term cooling but long-term global warming due to biomass burning (J. Climate, 2004)
    14. The climate response of fossil-fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot’s feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity (J. Geophys. Res., 2004)
    15. Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (Science, 2005)
    16. Effects of externally-through-internally-mixed soot inclusions within clouds and precipitation on global climate (J. Phys. Chem., 2006)
    17. Wind reduction by aerosol particles (Geophys. Res. Letters, 2006)
    18. Effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline vehicles on cancer and mortality in the United States (Environ. Sci. & Technol., 2007)
    19. On the causal link between carbon dioxide and air pollution mortality (Geophys. Res. Lett., 2008).
    20. Effects of wind-powered hydrogen fuel cell vehicles on stratospheric ozone and global climate (Geophys. Res. Lett., 2008).
    21. The short-term effects of agriculture on air pollution and climate in California (J. Geophys. Res., 2008).
    22. The influence of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, natural emissions, and air quality (J. Geophys. Res., 2009)
    23. The enhancement of local air pollution by urban CO2 domes (Environ. Sci. & Technol., 2010).
    24. Short-term effects of controlling fossil-fuel soot, biofuel soot and gases, and methane on climate, Arctic ice, and air pollution health (J. Geophys. Res., 2010)
    25. Global-through-urban nested three-dimensional simulation of air pollution with a 13,600-reaction photochemical mechanism (J. Geophys. Res., 2010)
    26. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part I: Numerical methods for treating the subgrid evolution of discrete size- and composition-resolved contrails from all commercial flights worldwide (J. Comp. Phys., 2011)
    27. Worldwide health effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident (Energy & Environmental Science, 2012)
    28. Comparing results from a physical model with satellite and in situ observations to determine whether biomass burning aerosols over the Amazon brighten or burn off clouds (J. Geophys. Res., 2012)
    29. The effects of rerouting aircraft around the Arctic Circle on Arctic and global climate (Climatic Change, 2012)
    30. Effects of urban surfaces and white roofs on global and regional climate (J. Climate, 2012)
    31. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part II: 20-year impacts of exhaust from all commercial aircraft worldwide treated individually at the subgrid scale (Faraday Discussions, 2013)
    32. Taming hurricanes with arrays of offshore wind turbines (Nature Climate Change, 2014)
    33. Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects (J. Geophys. Res., 2014)
    34. Ring of impact from the mega-urbanization of Beijing between 2000 and 2009 (J. Geophys. Res., 2015)

  12. Computational Solvers Developed for GATOR-GCMOM
    1. SMVGEAR: A sparse-matrix, vectorized Gear code for atmospheric models (Atmospheric Environment, 1994)
    2. Computation of global photochemistry with SMVGEAR II (Atmospheric Environment, 1995).
    3. Improvement of SMVGEAR II on vector and scalar machines through absolute error tolerance control (Atmospheric Environment, 1998)
    4. Modeling coagulation among particles of different composition and size (Atmospheric Environment, 1995)
    5. Simulating condensational growth, evaporation, and coagulation of aerosols using a combined moving and stationary size grid (Aerosol Science & Technology, 1995)
    6. Numerical techniques to solve condensational and dissolutional growth equations when growth is coupled to reversible reactions (Aerosol Science & Technology, 1997)
    7. Enhanced coagulation due to evaporation and its effect on nanoparticle evolution (Environmental Science & Technology, 2005)
    8. Simulating equilibrium within aerosols and nonequilibrium between gases and aerosols (J. Geophys. Res., 1996)
    9. Studying the effect of calcium and magnesium on size-distributed nitrate and ammonium with EQUISOLV II (Atmospheric Environment, 1999)
    10. A solution to the problem of nonequilibrium acid/base gas-particle transfer at long time step (Aerosol Science & Technology, 2005)
    11. Development and application of a new air pollution modeling system. Part II: Aerosol-module structure and design (Atmospheric Environment, 1997)
    12. Studying the effects of aerosols on vertical photolysis rate coefficient and temperature profiles over an urban airshed (J. Geophys. Res., 1998)
    13. Isolating nitrated and aeromatic aerosols and nitrated aromatic gases as sources of ultraviolet light absorption (1999)
    14. A physically-based treatment of elemental carbon optics: Implications for global direct forcing of aerosols (Geophys. Res. Lett., 2000)
    15. A refined method of parameterizing absorption coefficients among multiple gases simultaneously from line-by-line data (J. Atmos. Sci., 2005)
    16. Analysis of aerosol interactions with numerical techniques for solving coagulation, nucleation, condensation, dissolution, and reversible chemistry among multiple size distributions (J. Geophys. Res., 2002)
    17. Development of mixed-phase clouds from multiple aerosol size distributions and the effect of the clouds on aerosol removal (J. Geophys. Res., 2003)
    18. A mass, energy, vorticity, and potential enstrophy conserving lateral fluid-land boundary scheme for the shallow water equations (J. Comp. Phys., 2009)
    19. A mass, energy, vorticity, and potential enstrophy conserving lateral boundary scheme for the shallow water equations using piecewise linear boundary approximations (J. Comp. Phys., 2011)
    20. Numerical solution to drop coalescence/breakup with a volume-conserving, positive-definite, and unconditionally-stable scheme (J. Atmos. Sci., 2011)
    21. Investigating cloud absorption effects: Global absorption properties of black carbon, tar balls, and soil dust in clouds and aerosols (J. Geophys. Res., 2012)
    22. Studying ocean acidification with conservative, stable numerical schemes for nonequilibrium air-ocean exchange and ocean equilibrium chemistry (J. Geophys. Res., 2005)
    23. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2012)
    24. Coupling of highly explicit gas and aqueous chemistry mechanisms for use in 3-D (Atmospheric Environment, 2012)
    25. Effects of urban surfaces and white roofs on global and regional climate (J. Climate, 2012)
    26. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part I: Numerical methods for treating the subgrid evolution of discrete size- and composition-resolved contrails from all commercial flights worldwide (J. Comp. Phys., 2011)

Features of GATOR-GCMOM, the model used for the above studies



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