The TAs and I have finished grading the midterm exam. The exams themselves are available for pickup in the Gates 1B Wing in a set of filing cabinets near Keith's office. (Check the drawer labeled "CS166 Midterms" under the pictures of all the CS106 course staff.)
We've put together a handout with solutions and statistics, along with more information about why we asked each question and some of the more common mistakes we saw when grading.
We were thoroughly impressed with this quarter's batch of final projects. Thanks for putting in such an amazing effort. We're hoping to get back to you with feedback early next week.
We've finished our matchmaking and are happy to report that every team managed to get either their firstchoice or secondchoice topic for the final project. Here's a link to the list of assigned topics. Best of luck  we're excited to see what you come up with!
We'll be holding three sets of office hours each week:
Come with questions, leave with answers!
Welcome to CS166, a course in the design, analysis, and implementation of data structures. We've got an exciting quarter ahead of us  the data structures we'll investigate are some of the most beautiful constructs I've ever come across  and I hope you're able to join us.
CS166 has two prerequisites  CS107 and CS161. From CS107, we'll assume that you're comfortable working from the commandline; designing, testing, and debugging nontrivial programs; manipulating pointers and arrays; using bitwise operators; and reasoning about the memory hierarchy. From CS161, we'll assume you're comfortable designing and analyzing nontrivial algorithms; using O, o, Θ, Ω, and ω notation; solving recurrences; working through standard graph and sequence algorithms; and structuring proofs of correctness.
We'll update this site with more information as we get closer to the start of the quarter. In the meantime, feel free to email me at htiek@cs.stanford.edu if you have any questions about the class!
This syllabus is still under construction and is subject to change as we finetune the course. Stay tuned for more information and updates!
Tuesday  Thursday 

Where to Go from Here
June 5
Whew! We've covered a lot of ground this quarter. Did you think you'd have learned as much as you did in these ten actionpacked weeks! This final lecture serves as a recap of the different techniques that we've seen, both from a practical and philosophical perspective, and is a chance to ask any remaining questions you might have. Slides: 

Fusion Trees, Part II
May 29
The sardine tree we developed in our last lecture gives a fast ordered dictionary data structure for small keys. By harnessing its key insight  Btree lookups can be sped up by improving rank calculations at each node  and combining it with some insights about integers and Patricia tries, we can build the fusion tree, which works for any integers that fit into a machine word. Slides: 
Dynamic Graphs
May 31
In realworld networks, links come online and offline all the time. Eulertour trees can maintain connectivity in such networks as long as those networks are forests, and dynamic graphs can handle arbitrary network topologies. Readings:
Slides: 
xFast and yFast Tries
May 22
Balanced BSTs are excellent generalpurpose data structures for storing sorted collections of elements. But what happens if we know those elements are integers? By taking advantage of their structure and some nice properties of machine words, we can exponentially improve their performance. Readings: Slides: Handouts: 
Fusion Trees, Part I
May 24
Memory inside a computer is split apart into individual machine words, with primitive operations like addition, subtraction, and multiplication taking constant time. This means that, if we can pack multiple pieces of data into a single machine word, we can essentially get a limited form of parallel computation. Through a variety of very clever tricks, we can use this to speed up searching and sorting. This first lecture explores wordlevel parallelism through a data structure for very small integers and a technique for computing mostsignificant bits in time O(1). It will lay the groundwork we'll use next time when exploring fusion trees. Readings:
Slides: 
Linear Probing
May 15
Linear probing is one of the oldest and simplest strategies for building a hash table. It's easy to implement and, for a number of reasons, is extremely fast in practice. The analysis of linear probing dates was due to Knuth, which assumed truly random hash functions. But what happens if we tighten up this restriction and say that the hash functions aren't truly random but are, instead, just kindependent for some fixed k? Then the analysis gets a lot more challenging, but also a lot more interesting. In exploring how the math works out, we'll get a richer understanding for how to analyze randomized data structures. Readings:
Slides: 
Cuckoo Hashing
May 17
Most hash tables give expected O(1) lookups. Can we make hash tables with no collisions at all, and if so, can we do it efficiently? Amazingly, the answer is yes. There are many schemes for achieving this, one of which, Cuckoo hashing, is surprisingly simple to implement. Readings:
Slides: Handouts: 
Splay Trees
May 8
Balanced binary search trees give worstcase O(log n) times on each tree operation. If we're trying to guarantee worstcase efficiency, this is as good as it gets. But what if we're trying to guarantee averagecase efficiency? In that case, it's possible to improve upon the bounds given by balanced BSTs. In this lecture, we'll explore statically optimal BSTs and an amazing data structure called the splay tree that very well may be the best possible binary search tree. Readings:
Slides: Handouts: 
CountMin and Count Sketches
May 10
How can Google keep track of frequent search queries without storing all the queries it gets in memory? How can you estimate frequently occurring tweets without storing every tweet in RAM? As long as you're willing to trade off accuracy for space, you get get excellent approximations. Readings:
Slides: 
Binomial Heaps
May 1
Binomial heaps are a simple and flexible priority queue structure that supports efficient melding of priority queues. The intuition behind binomial heaps is particularly elegant, and they'll serve as a building block toward the more complex Fibonacci heap data structure that we'll talk about on Thursday. Readings:
Slides: Handouts: 
Fibonacci Heaps
May 3
Fibonacci heaps are a type of priority queue that efficiently supports decreasekey, an operation used as a subroutine in many graph algorithms (Dijkstra's algorithm, Prim's algorithm, the StoerWagner min cut algorithm, etc.) They're formed by a clever transformation on a lazy binomial heap. Although Fibonacci heaps have a reputation for being ferociously complicated, they're a lot less scary than they might seem! Readings:
Slides: 
Balanced Trees, Part II
April 24
We've spent a lot of time trying to figure out how to build nice balanced trees. Now that we've got them, what else can we do with them? In this lecture, we'll see two more advanced techniques  tree augmentation and the split/join operations  that will make it possible to build significantly more complex data structures in the future. Readings:
Slides: Handouts: 
Amortized Analysis
April 26
In many cases we only care about the total time required to process a set of data. In those cases, we can design data structures that make some operations more expensive in order to lower the total cost of all aggregate operations. How do you analyze these structures? Readings:
Slides: 
Constructing Suffix Arrays
April 17
Suffix trees and suffix arrays are amazing structures, but they'd be much less useful if it weren't possible to construct them quickly. Fortunately, there are some great techniques for building suffix arrays and suffix trees. What are they? How do they work? Prepare to see some of the craziest and most beautiful algorithms in all of stringology! Readings:
Slides: Handouts: 
Balanced Trees, Part I
April 19
Balanced search trees are among the most versatile and flexible data structures. They're used extensively in theory and in practice. What sorts of balanced trees exist? How would you design them? And what can you do with them? Readings:

AhoCorasick Automata
April 10
Suppose you have a fixed set of strings and you'd like to search for all copies of those strings in a larger text corpus. How could you do so efficiently? By using a combination of tries and techniques from finite automata, it's possible to solve this problem in linear time. Readings:
Slides: Handouts: 
Suffix Trees and Suffix Arrays
April 12
The suffix tree and suffix array are probably the most powerful and versatile data structures for string processing that have ever been invented. What is a suffix tree? What is a suffix array? Why are they so useful? And what techniques can be used on them? Readings: 
Range Minimum Queries, Part One
April 3
The range minimum query problem is the following: given an array, preprocess it so that you can efficiently determine the smallest value in a variety of subranges. RMQ has tons of applications throughout computer science and is an excellent proving ground for a number of advanced algorithmic techniques. Slides: Readings: 
Range Minimum Queries, Part Two
April 5
Our last lecture took us very, very close to a ⟨O(n), O(1)⟩time solution to RMQ. Using a new data structure called a Cartesian tree in conjunction with a technique called the Method of Four Russians, we can adapt our approach to end up with a linearpreprocessingtime, constantquerytime solution to RMQ. In doing so, we'll see a number of clever techniques that will appear time and time again in data structure design. Readings:
